THE MAKING OF MARKETS Aristocrat in its Own Right, the Orange Commands Many" Servants in its Train. The Fruit Exchange — Its Intricate and Efficient System. A. P. Kerckholf, President Fruit Exchange. In Ihe days nt' prosporii.v passed through, the orange figured often as a part of ilf nifii'i nl' ''vn llic hum- bll'St elll/'-ns 1)1' this CMIIlll.V. Illlt WaK still deemed si liixiii.'. Through Hi'' fact lli.'il even one bad money iii I my a few oram.'cs when considering llii'in jUxurii'K, the f'i'i'il became universally used, so that when days cume wlii'i) times were ;i liii straitened, llic orange was missed sadly, and I hi; outcome, as the shippers and jobbers will tell yon throughout Ihe United Stales, has been that the orange came lo In 1 a universal luxury through good llrni-H, and remained as a necessity In bad times, thus giving H » place "H ;> staple- pr/>duellon. Not HO broadly termed a necessity an Ihe apple, It Is, however, making a place more secure each year, as HH splendid food-flavoring qualities arc discovered, and Ihe many wayH In which II is employed as a part of table food are dun mainly to pioneer Investigation of comparatively only it f<;w years. For, although the away from Ihe gloss of I hi' foliage. 'I'll'' houses of Southern Callfotriia are in.iignlficani before ihis Immense pnn- orarria of a frul 1 Industry. Though some of tin- finest homes in Ihe world •ii'' found hi'ri', the traveler cannot be' come impressed wild ill'' fact on first inspection, for iln' never-ending pageant of grove afii'f grove seemingly wlllioiil beginning or ''lid. fas- •clnatcs, and tin- tourist marvels Dial so iiiurh beauty. so iini'-h wealth of color and pleasure should be ulven (ill to ill" pi'Opli- of on'' part Df "ii' j HI all- in l]|r. llllillll I') 'III- exclusion "f 'he .greater poriluii of Hi' 1 i'-HI of III' 1 1 world. 1 Birth and Breeding. I Like all aristocrats, tbi- orange demands and gets tin' very best, lo In- had. It occupies soil in California that has no equal in tin? world. II asks for nutrition, for water, for concentrated sunshine and for Intelligent care, and gets H all, for tin: orange repays In coin as golden as Its owr. coal.,' the man who treats It well, and the orange also gives nothing to the one who neglects H. Ho that, when HiiH I'm 11 Is ripe and ready for the markets, the greatesl care must be taken of II., or the work of a season will go for nothing. 'The rancher has floor of the packing house, the weight of the load, number of boxes taken, and the fruit inspected. Association Houses, The process of grading and son inn ! Is a peculiarly interesting one. At ithe Immense packing bouses of the Co- j vina Citrus Association and the Co i vlna Orange (; lowers' Association, at ( ovina. one may stand hiseinatcd an •'•ni in- day. watching the endless ; stream of ibis splendid fruit, travel- int.- on its way from the mule wagon at the door to th' 1 shipping cars ont- i side. l(.'i\vs of men amt women sil in • fioni of Jiie beh.s, toiichiiiK and t.nrn- ; IIIK the oranKi'H, wViicb are un| der liiKper:llon by hundreds of eyes I during the whole journey from the Held to the car. As the oranges pass, ;i sorter reaches for one which perhaps ba.< received a scar on the side, ibus marring the beauty, while not. impairing its real value. In a similar manner the "Choice!" and "Kxtra Choice." are segregated from the moving mass, while any worthless or bruised ones, of which there Is a surprisingly sm;ill number are thrown out. These associations market the oningcs from about 2,100 acres, about (,'fp per cent, of which are Washington Navels, the remainder being Valen- Covina Citrus Association Packing House. orange lias long been grown In <|inin- titlos In the United Hlales, It. has only been until recently I hut, II was ihoughl a palatable I'ruli to cook, excepting In but a few ways. The orange-pudding and the marmalade have been fondly with us for some time, hut ask (he chef of a big hostelry In New York what In; dues with oranges, and lie will probably show you an array of dishes ready for that very menu, In which Ihe orange Is in some shape figuring In all of them. Therefore, Ihe orange has established an enviable place In domes- lie products, simply by retaining all its rH;hl lo be called a luxury, and by usurping the posllloim of humbler fruits in the realms of the kllchen and in the heart.4 of cooks. Poetry and Prose. One would Ihliik thai a story of Ihe orange, as Mils essenl lally is, would contain someihlng approaching a poetic eulogy, so lieiiul ll'ul are all the conditions under which It Is grown, so aristocrat ic Is HH. llavor and form. The poets who have rhapsodi/.ed about oranges, and about orange groven, never began to approach the portrayal of sublime heiiul.v to In- found In a community growing this gorgeous fruit, but one niusl also remain on a practical plane, shutting out the vision of the beautiful for a short lime, In order in explain that wonderful system which makes the orange a necessity after Its years of probation as a luxury. Aiile after mile may be rlddr-n through Southern California on those swiftly-moving trains of Ihe far west, ihosr trains which are distinguishable Iroin the ones of eastern roads because lhey are vastly liciter equipped, cleaner, and freer from dust mile after mile may be traversed without seeing an appreciable break In (he solid hanks of orange groves, thai car pel Ihe lloor of Ihe valley like Ihe foxtail that one looks down upon from some little eastern knoll wondrous, symmetrical lines of darkest green, touched with silver (lutings and border ifji.cery, as the sunshine ^hlmmcrs G. N. Atwood, Manager Citrus Asso ciation. belli) at work cultivating, Irrlgaling and pruning, until the fruit, has matured, and Is ripe for the eastern markets. This Is In the latter part of January or February thai the Wash Inglon navel of market fame Is walling for shipment, and In August and September with the Valencia. These two kinds are all that will be definitely spoken of, nil hough there arc a do/on other standard varieties forming a part of I be Southern California shipment H. The Valencia Is a dainty fruit of even si/e, deep golden color, thin •peel, without seed, and (he arrogant possessor of practically the whole Mummer orange market. It can be grown with wonderful success In California, and this fact has caused thousands of acres lo be budded to this I'ruli In She past ten years, with the result that this state Is figuring al Hump of lh;>. llsl in supplying caslern markets with palatable fruits during tin- holiest months. For Ihe same reason of Ils own peculiar season, Ihe Valencia commands a much higher price than all Ihe other oranges; an aristocrat in price as well as In beauty and llavor. After Hie Valencia trees have been relieved of their burden, there Is a brief interim when the packing houses and shippers are idle. Not for very long, for there Is the Christmas trade lo prepare for, although the Southern California shippers pay little attention to ibis market, as the Southern fruit has not reached iln full maturity at this season, and it has been found that it would be a fruit of Inferior llavor on Ihe market, causing unfavorable opinion lo go abroad. The Navel takes up the grimiest amount of attention, as It keeps Hie packing houses running full time from January lo sometimes as hue as June. This Is the great orange of trade, the seedless offspring of (he old California and Florida seedlings. Care and Caution. The pickers go into Ihe orchard with long canvas sacks, open at Ihe mouth with wire hoops, and strapped over the shoulder. Tills picking sack is •ilso caught together at the bottom b\ in ingenious wire device, which ren- j deis ll light until Ihe spring i.s re- j leased win n tin- cranges roll gently j inn into the picking boxes without the! unnecessary bruising attendant upon tlie old methods of picking in lute i sacks or with baskets. Every orange is clipped with a small pair of orange elippeis. No fruit is ever pulled from I the l lee like apples or deciduous ; fruits. The gieatest care is taken iliai i In- I'ruit shall in- clipped with Mioi i 1 -,1.1ns in order dial the stubs Vti'l not : In ni.-. ! In- fruit in i In- boxes F.u-i \ l bin:: exeepi inu a rot ten or gre- n e, Ul'-:e U picked and '.aUell lo tile p;iei. in; 1 , houses, \vhere the system ol ^'ad inu and Minium begins ll requiie.- a imildin:- a> laiu, as mam an eastern manulaet in inu plant to place the or ,in^e on Hie in.irk- i after it has been L:IOWII and picked The sironu. nub- Held boxes tilled with the fruit of all si/.e-i and conditions have been let- b\ ibe iv.oinule uam a' she leeeulni: this work IH the Parker Automatic box-making machine, which will make 2,000 of the sectional orange boxc« In ten hours, operated by two men. The oirl hand-making process Is being relegated to Ihe background all over the state. The greatest care IK taken in watching the workmanship, in order to prevent the needless ebrasions, and all mechanical Injuries which come of i he indifferent workman, so that orange picking has developed Into something like an American science, which means thousands of dollars difference each year to the growers and shippers of this valley. Hay work in the oreh arils has been found to pay best. Ue- eanse of the care taken in keeping the orchards of the Associations fumigated each year, only a small per cent of the output Is washed, while the Valoneias arc simply cleansed of the summer dust, to render them beautiful and marketable productions. The method of wrapping each orange In tissue paper after it. has been graded by the system of graduated power rollers into bins, where each bin contains an exact size that will pack a given number Into each box, is a matter that need only to be touched upon in passing. This work is all done by girls, which Is clean, Intelligent work, calling for the brain of the American girl of good standing, and trustworthy. Picking and Packing. Since the associations began picking the oranges, and did away with the old "pioc»3 work" method of getting the fruit, gathered at a certain price per box, the fruit comes to the house In practically perfect condition for packing, making the proposition of slow, careful picking by the day a profitable thing. Everything in the two associations is on a co-operative basis. The Associations work for the best interests of the members, for there is no reason to do otherwise, and each year Ihe methods of handling and packing improve. The fruit is watched from the time It begins to show signs of ripening until it is sent out in the cars over the country, advising and working with the grower. No other method has been found so effective for good results, taking everything into consideration. The grower i.s not robbed by middle men and outside agents. He practically handles the fruit himself. Every orange is inspected a hundred times, it might be said, before it reaches the consumer. G. Harold Powell, a well known government fruit expert, who has made himself invaluable to the Cali- Htitutes a part of the California Fruit Growers' Exchange, one of the largest fruit-handling concerns In the world. Manager D. Eyman Huff gives the ffgures of fruit for the year just closed as a total of ills cars. Of this amount 182 cars were loaded with the summer Valencia, Ihe highest-priced orange in the market, peculiar to Southern California and especially to Covina and the Cppcr San Gabriel Valley. These cars an.- the triumphs of the refrigerator car-makers, containing on an average :i9(i packed boxes to the car, wedged in tightly and braced with cleats In order to prevent shifting while en route. After the fruit is packed in the car, the contents is reported to Ihe manager of the Covina Fruit Exchange whore Ihe system of sending each car to the best market is taken up by thai office, which maintains a firm grip on the market fluctuations, knowing at all times which city, town or state is in need of the particular kind of fruit on hand, working in perfect conjunction with the railroad companies, and remaining in charge of the fruit, until it is delivered to the jobbers along the many routes covered by this big organization. Pools and Pro-Rates. The system of pro-rating and pool- Ing on fruit, carried out by the Exchange and Associations, has brought the prices up to a better average than was formerly even dreamed of in the old days before the grower was protected by such management. The California Fruit Growers' Exchange handles nothing but citrus fruits. With its present manager and salesmen the main office in Los Angeles has reached a high plane of proficiency, and such men as Manager Huff of the Covina local office are the direct products of this complete organization. Mr. Huff, before taking his responsible position in Covina, worked up through the many departments of the head office, until he knew Intimately every distributing center throughout the countries of the United States and Canada. Under the present management the local Exchange la getting stronger, acquiring more acreage and creeping up toward the top of the list in importance as a shipping center. The Covina Fruit Exchange has not dealt extensively in auction markets, as it has not been found necessary in order to distribute the high grade fruit in this manner. The great stream of I'ruit passing over the American transcontinental lines is always placed definitely with a complete knowledge of D. Eyman Huff, Mgr. Fruit Exchange. of the orange belt in the Upper San Gabriel. It is an interesting study of human progress, greater in achievement than some of the Napoleonic successes in battle—this battle for the reclamation of land from the plains, and the subsequent making of it into a paradise such as shames the description of the original Garden of Eden. Men have done this thing, and the world has not been thrust into upheaval and bloodshed by it. It is one of the great battles of history, a battle for homes and happiness in a country once new, and the Covina orange belt today Is the peaceful battleground of a great Industrial army of Americans, who have left a marvelously rich legacy behind them. A Long Trip From the East, Wasn't It? You had no idea the United States was so large, perhaps. Now that you are here, and alighting from the Pacific Electric car at Citrus avenue, stop a moment at NASH'S PHARMACY Get rested—get a cooling drink— and telephone to your friends. In getting off the car, remember you are right in front of Mr. Nash's windows. And we're all glad you decided to come to Covina. Inasmuch as we're to be friends, I would like to call attention to a larger display advertisement in another portion of this paper. When you're well settled in the new Covina home, you will need some of the many household comforts which I am advertising. Glance over the list as it appears elsewhere. Glad to be first to meet you. W. W. NASH PRESCRIPTION PHARMACIST cias and other varieties grown In smaller quantities. The Covina Ciirus Association was Incorporated In October of 1X!)5, and has grown steadily with the growth of orange acreage un- till It is one of the important packing establishments in Southern California. The well-known brands of the Covina Ciirus Association, of which G. N. Atwood is manager, are the Blue C., lied C., Cougar, and White C. This Is one of the most thoroughly equipped packing houses In the State. The Covina Orange Growers' Association, of which C. E. Crawford is manager, divides the fruit into three grades, namely "Butterfly," "Teal" and "Holly" brands. When one sees these names ot the two Association brands In the eastern markets on the sectional boxes of Hit! conventional kind, it may be known immediately that this is Ihe orange of Ihe Sierra Mad re foothills, packed at Covina. now famous throughout Ihe fruit markets. The fruit from these Associations is shipped lo every slate in the Union, into Manitoba and Kastern Canada, and several shipments to Kuropean markets. These associations have charge practically of the fruit In their jurisdiction during the entire season, employing men to fumigate orchards and lo pick and haul lo tin- packing house, while all Ibis labor am', cost of care is deducted from each member's proportion of the season's proceeds. American labor is used in all branches, and the greatest care is used in by these associations lo prevent rough handling, or any of the carelessness which promotes decay. During the past year Ihe Covina Orange Growers' Association has n equipped and enlarged ils packing house, lilting it with the most modern equipment. One of the features ot Orange Growers' Association Packing House fornla citrus fruit industry, lias studied (his trade carefully. His investigations under the direction of tin- Bureau of Plant Industry, have shown the ranchers how to Intelligently prevent the decay which may start in the orchards, and has pointed out the most efficacious manner of avoiding this trouble when the fruit is started on ils journey from the orchard to the consumer. The Hand at the Wheel. These two Associations spoken of, ship all fruit through Ihe Covina Fruit Exchange, which is a member and con- Picking Scene in Valencia Grove of T. F. Griswold. ils location and condition. The refrigerator cars occupy about nine days lime in going from l.os Angeles of Colton lo Chicago and twelve to thirteen days to New York. The railroads assume Ihe responsibility of icing and ventilation along the different: routes where the climatic conditions are constantly changing. Nearly sixty per cent of the citrus fruit grown in California is marketed through this Exchange. It is an absolute system of co-operative marketing, bringing in no profit to anyone but the grower. The grower pays the actual cost of getting his fruit marketed. He does not have to pay for manipulation, for scheming and jockeying In tlie markets. The California t Fruit Growers' Exchange is in the | grower's employ, and is subject to no other influence save that of the in- I leresls of the grower. Tins fact has 1 been rendered plain in the past years, and the grower does not hesitate to! i conlirin this fact by his support ot i ! membership in the organization. The! ! handling of great strings of cars load-1 ed with this fruit is a tremendous re-j sponsibility. and the California Fruit j Growers' Exchange lias kept its trust! ; faithfully and well. j Covers the Valley. In reading the figures of the Kx-' change shipments printed in this article one niusl nei get the idea thai Ibis is .111 einiii aeeiiient of the entire shipineiil-i el ibf \ailey. Associations are Miuated ni eaeli town in the San Gabtiel Valliv. under the same systems i-mp!o'.ed in ('ovina. In ih-- local F.xehati^e ihete is approximately IM 11 " acres of i-iuus Units, which is about (\\o-ihhds nt' the oranges and lemons uro\\n in t'o\ina and vicinii). in other ai Helen in Mils paper tie- reader ma 1 . -••! a e.ineluMve idea of the <:/.>• A Convert. The brew of his first year's discontent, Rose up like bitter yeast; His song, where'er his steps were bent, Was "East, Back East." At last he went his eager way To the wind-swept Eastern plain. A few short months made up his stay, And he was back again. Remember the folks in the old homeland, East, West, North orJSouth, and send them this special number of the Argus, a Christmas greeting from the land of fruits and flowers. C. E. Crawford. Manager Orange Growers' Association.
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