Covina Argus from Covina, California on July 11, 1908 · Page 3
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Covina Argus from Covina, California · Page 3

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Covina, California
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Saturday, July 11, 1908
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Page 3
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TRV THE GOVINA FURNITURE GO FOR ANYTHING IN THE LINE OF .FURNITURE or FLOOR COVERINGS SAFEST PLACE TC TRADE W. Q. CUSTER, Manager Yosemlte Valley. Yosetnitc Valley is now reached daily after short and pleawant trip via Southern Pact lie to Merced, Yosemite Valley Railroad and 12 miles stag-e ride. Information c may be had at Southern Pacific office. FIGHTING THE CITRUS PESTS. The following article on futnigR- tion is from the pen of Henry L. Marshall and appeared in the Los .Angeles Times of Sunday last: The hydrocyanic process of fumigation tor citrus fruits, has been practiced in Los Angeles county in a desultory manner for the past twenty years, but not until the last five or six years has it been perfected so as to successfully combat the several kinds of citrus scale. Tho gentlemen comprising the horticultural board of Los Angeles County have been, in conjunction with the National Department of Agriculture and the California State Board, fighting for the freedom of the fruit tree, but nothing can be done without the cooperation of the grower. There is no man in the entire State who has done more to bring this industry to perfection than C. E. Bemis, member of the Los Angeles County Horticultural Commission, whose magnificent home and grove is in the heart of the Covina orange district. The employment of cyanide of potassium and sulphuric acid, with which to generate the gas which destroys all auimalsulae, has been this man's most absorbing study for the past fifteen years. Mr. Bemis was an inspector for the commission until the advancement of Mr. Jeffrey to the post of State commissioner, when, at Mr. Jeffrey's earnest solicitation, he was made a nrember of the board. When Mr. Bemis arrived at the point where he was convinced that this preparation in heavier applications could be used for the annihilation of citrus pests without injury to the tree, he submitted his discovery to growers and to experts, but such had become their belief iu the danger of too liberal dosage that not one man in the entire state would hear him out in further investigation until the process had been demonstrated repeatedly through several seasons. The Covina district is one of the finest, orange belts in the State today, principally through this man's discovery and his study of the enemies of fruit trees. HOW ACCOMPLISHED. The fumigation is accomplished under canvas tents that are drawn over the trees individually, with all. the openings at the bottom carefully closed. After the trees have been thus covered the generator man lifts a corner of the tent and sets the ear- theru crock beneath. Then • he proceeds to measure out the exact amount of water needed to dilute the sulphuric acid to a proper consistency for generation, and this part of the business is a fine art. His judgment on water dilution makes of him either a good or a poor generator. The sulphuric is added and then the cyanide, whereupon the generator closes the tent hastily and gets away from the fumes. The position of the generator is somewhat dangerous. Many a man bus been overcome for several hours by a strong whiff of the vapor, and in the history of the business one fatility has occurred. The work goes on through the night without interruption unless a heavy fog comes in, which soaks the trees uud renders the tents too heavy for the pullers to move from tree to tree. In Southern California the worst. citrus pest, beyond any doubt, is the black scale. When Commissioner Bemis made this statement in regard to the black scale at a growers' institute recently, it caused no little comment, but he maintained his riositiob firmly on the ground that this branch of the pest family is by far the most numerous, and breeds with greater prodigality than any other. "The black scule is a greater post to the growers of this country than all tho others put together," he said. "It descends upon us in miHimis, and covering the branches aa it does, extracts I'min the tret; practically all its circulation, sothul no matter how much water in applied, the treo is still in a continual .state of drouth. And, while rubbing the tre.- of its natural rnr.it-tnre, the .scale, not content with trucking its fill, gorges itself to overflowing, and thrmvti orl' through the pures in its shell, the sticky substance known to growers as 'honey dew,' which makes a perfect culture for mold or mildew accumulation. Th>.: dead runld forms a smut which rlu&es the leaf | .-i.res, thereby destroying the function of u.xidixat iiiii nrthe natuial breathing i.f the tree " The pn.-ress of scheduling fur fu- liiij-'ation in ti. carefully in«|.t.-ft each tr.-.'t; in li'ie yruve, lnak)i,!> an estimate (.1 the number ot cubic feet <.t air vnibmeed t.y liu- loliaji- and gt-viti :il bulk, the extent of the scale infestation, nnd to mark tho required amount of mixture on the chart. Each tree has its separate figures and treatment according to its size and infestation. Fumigation for black scnlo then begins in the fall, about September, when this particular poet in through breeding for the summer season. In order to perform perfect work the hydrocynic process must be done in the night time, when the foliage is cool and slightly damp, to prevent burning. Successful fumigation has been carried on by some growers during the day, but the work calls for extreme care, and never has proven as perfect as do the operations after the eoing down of the sun. The cost of fumigation ia of course governed by the age of the trees and the variety of scale with which they are infested. ' The hydrocyanic method, when applied in a rational manner, successfully combats the black scale evil. A grove of Valeucias or navels, fifteen years old and badly infested, may be cleaned at a cost of from 12 to '20 cents per tree. The occasional orchard that has been planted irregularly costs more, and if the trees are unusually laige and old the dosage is correspondingly larger and the work more onerous. The system of fumigating large seedlings and heavy high growth trees is by using derrick tents which is slower and more costly. Nearly all the old trees requiring derricks are confined to localities other than Los Angeles county, although quite a little derrick work ia done in the vicinity of Alhambra each year. After a successful fumigation the mold nnd dead scale crackles to pieces on the leaves, and is dissipated by the rainfall, the foliage coming out dark green and glossy as nature meant them to be. Nothing seems so pitiful to the lover of intelligent j fruit culture as the sight of a magnificent orchard, set in the richest alluvial soil, turning yellow and drooping, while the foliage looks as if. some volcano near by had been showering its death dealing ashes and soot. This is the work of black scale, a trouble which careful and rational treatment obviates in every instance. THE RED SCALE. The red scale, which^ seems to be next in importance, is not propagated from eggs like the black variety, and therefore is not as prolific. It is a virulent pest, however, and up until three years ago was fought with little success. Unlike the black scale, which has breeding seasons, the red scale brings forth its young without cessation during every warm month in the year. Fumigation for this insect means constant vigilance as its tenacity upon life is greater than the black variety. Until recently it was thought that a dosage sufficiently strong to exterminate tho red scale would kill the foliage. Kxperimeuts were carried on by Coin mission or Bemis until he clearly demonstrated that the strength of the solution could bo carried to the point of fin mo combustion, or nearly so, without tho tree being damaged in the slightest, if sufficient care was taken, Therefore, the red scale, never so prevalent as the black, is now under a good state of control. The same may bo said of the purple scale, a pest of an altogether different family. Tho failures in connection with fumigation for tho red and purple scale in tho past (and also the yellow scale, which is not prevalent here) has been duo solely to two causfH-— insuHlciont strength of solution and the removal of the tents before generation has been complete. The tents must remain on for at least an hour, or seventy minutes, and in olslinate cases, one hnur and thirty minutes. Although all odoi nee.nin u> have been dissipated after an hour's treatment, the permeation of fumeft continues to go on aa the results have shown. The aphis, and all members of this family, are being eradicated largely through the parasitic procos-i. The cnmmissioneis of this State discovered several years agn that, the parasite known as the lady bird or lady bug played an important part in the annihilation of the aphis. Hitherto the trouble had been to keep the aphis family in check until the ladv bird hatched out in the spring, for the peats became too nutnerou.-i nlwayw for the parasite to cope with through getting an earile.r start. Working on this fact the commission began hatching the lady bird in advance, and curious as it may wound, keeping the lady bird young in a system of cold s-to!iige until the appearance of tht in.iect.s- So prolific is this para site that the officials have succeed):'! in pro curing it in biiihelri, and this useful i.ug thrives well at a very iuvv leniperalure. Million.? oi them are distributed over the State each year and the pest disappears before them. One branch of tho family of lady bird, introduced from Australia a few years ago, saved tho citrus industry from absolute destruction by white scale, changing hopelessness to joy. CLEAN FRUIT IS BETTER FRUIT. Every grower of experience has come to know that only clean fruit is profitable. Whernvei the groves are infested with scale the fruit is taken to the packinghouses, covered thickly about tho stem with a mixture of dead mold and "honey dew," necessitating the work of washing each orange or lemon before packing. Tho honey dew, or sticky excretion of the black scale, makes the whole unsightly mass difficult of separation from tho fruit. Fruit washing machines bruise and maul the fruit more or less, never thoroughly cleaning, and the whole tendency is toward an unmarketable or low grade product. Prof. C. L. Marlatt, assisted by Prof. Woglum, both of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, have been carrying on exhaustive investigations in fumigation in Southern California, and though the whole subject is being fully exploited, including tho resistency ot tho insect, tho right period for exposure to dosages of hydrocyanic acid, its generation, killing effect, pressure of gas, different proportions of water used, margin between efficiency and danger to tree and plant, and many other important features. The great crying message, however, which is agreed upon, is eternal vig- il once upon tho part of tho> grower and fidelity to tho instruct ions disseminated by thoae men \\ho arc occupied in tho work of Gradient ion. Tho deportmonl, officials state positively that double tho amount of hy- drocyanic anid usod ordinarily for blnok scale may bo used for rod and purple scale with pood results, and that tho old slogan "onco rod sc.alo always rod Bottle," has passed into the archives of memory. In such localities aa Rodlands and Riverside it. was formerly said that tho country was too hot for tho posts to brood, and that groves in those localities were therefore free from them. But as tho trues became larger tho scnlo found shade to propagate in, and tho fight was on. Fumigation has come tn stay unless the proper pnrnsitosare discovered. Without it the citrus scale will preempt the land. Fumi- agtion removes the danger. This fact is for tho newoomor to loarn in his first season and for tho old grower never to forgot. Long Beach Chautauqua. John Shorn Williams, recently elected Senator from Mississippi, will bo ono of tho chief attractions at Long Beach Chautauqua during tho coming two weeks. Senator Williams is not only ono of tho foremost monitors of his party in the councils of <he nation but ho stands in tho foremost of the platform orators of the day. His lectures to tho Chnutauqutt will be features no one who desires to hear tho host can afford to miss. I. N, WILSON • The Blacksmith With the most skillful mechanics and the best equipment we can do your work in the most workmanlike and best manner in shorter time and at a reasonable cost to you. We also carry a line of Farm Implements, Wagons, Etc, and if you are thinking' of purchasing a vehicle os-any kind we invite you to call and look over our .line and talk the.raatter over. We will guarantee you a square deal and save you a few dollars besides. Select Your Route TOURIST CARS To the EAST Via New Orleans, El Paso or Ogden . Personally Conducted Tourist Excursions front Los Angeles to New Orleans, Washington, Cincinnati, Louisville, Chicago, St. Louis, Kansas City, Denver, Omaha, Minneapolis, St. Paul and other points in the ISast without change of cars. Through the warmer climate of the South, with its rice and cotton fields; or over the route of the Pioneers of '49, and across Great Salt Lake—"going to sea on a train." D. IJ. SCIIKNCK, Agent. Covina Home photic M4 or G. L. TRAVIS, Commercial Agent, Pomona Home phone <>1; Sunset Main 70 Southern Pacific I/os Angeles Ollic?, f>00 S. Spring 1 St.. corner Sixth Clarence Allison Plans furnished for all kinds of buildings. Building Contractor COVINA, CAL. Glendora Furniture Store Attention Please! If you are in need of any house furnishings it will pay you to get prices of us before buying. We have the goods, all kinds, and at very low prices. We can save you money if you will give us a chance. Phone us about window shades. See us about Undertaking and Embalming Latest Methods Everything guaranteed as represented. Goods delivered anywhere in the valley free of charge. F. A. SEIMBARS €> 1'ROl Phone 166

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