B-8 — WEDNESDAY, JUNE 10, 1998 Life in the '90s THE UKIAH DAILY JOURNAL, THE GARDENER'S GUIDE Inmates How to transplant vegetables By LEE REICH For AP Special Features Transplants are small plants that you start yourself indoors or buy from a nursery. Seeds sometimes seem so small and vulnerable that it's easy to persuade yourself to use transplants instead. But have some faith in nature. Plant seeds at the right time and depth in good garden soil and they will germinate. Not every plant likes to be transplanted. Tomato plants yanked out of the soil soon begin growing again if their roots or just their stems are covered with moist dirt. But the roots of plants like corn, poppies, melons. cucumbers and squash Uucchini) resent disturbance. Carrots. parsnips and other root crops also transplant poorly. Their taproots become the roots we eat, and if they are bent or broken while young, the result will be forked rather than straight, smooth carrots and parsnips. Any plant can be transplanted — if care is taken not to damage the roots. A plant doesn't even know it has been moved if a large ball of soil is taken along with the roots. Yet even among those plants that transplant easily, transplanting may not be worth the effort. For example, although early peas are a delicious treat, each pea plant yields only about 1/4 COMPOSTING •.Organic \ M What iS COmpOSting? Organic materials decompose when composted. How it works: Bacteria and other , , _,. organisms such '-« as fungi, worms and beetles feed on materials. Compost con •A backyard pen can circle of snovv fence ' \ •Bins can be made of wooden boxes Of e> plastic. Three watte the box should be Humus, a dark, 'nutrient-rich soil conditioner, is produced. Mix humus with soil, promoting root growth and spaces for air and water. 30% of organic household wastes are returned to the environment. Compost: • Alfalfa or hay • Citrus waste • Coffee grounds • Fruit • Grass clippings • Hair • Straw • Leaves • Manures • Sawdust • Newspapers Do not compost: • Coal • Cooked food waste • Dairy products • Dishwater • Dog, cat waste • Fats, grease, oils • Fish scraps • Grains • Meat, bones ounce of peas. Sow a long row of pea seeds in the garden instead. Generally, plants whose seeds you space closely in the garden not worth the trouble of are transplanting. In addition to peas, spinach, mustard and beans require too much effort. Sow leaf lettuce directly in the ground, but consider transplants for heading lettuces such as bibb and romaine because these plants need space to head up well. Or you can sow heading lettuces directly in the garden, then thin out excess plants. Transplant vegetables like tomatoes and peppers, which weed killers KRT Infographlcs need an early start indoors to ripen their fruits in a reasonable amount of time. You can also transplant broccoli and cabbage. It may also be worthwhile to start a few corn plants indoors. Fresh sweet corn is one of the ultimate eating pleasures of the vegetable garden. Water Continued from Page Ii-2 perimeter of the pool or the kind that's tripped when something falls into the pool. Kiddie pools present a hazard even the most careful parents overlook. It only takes an inch of water to drown, warns the Ameri- can Red Cross. Play pools should be emptied and turned over after each use, and parents must supervise kids in the way they would around a pool that's 10 feet deep. Understand that water wings and inflatable swimsuits are not lifesaving devices — will not keep a child's face out of the water — and will not prevent a child from drowning. Don't drop your guard around hot tubs. Children (and adults) can be injured and even drown when their hair — long ponytails, for instance — or body parts get trapped in the drains of older models. Always make sure to check that the hot tub you're entering has proper safety covers over any drains, and that an emergency on-off switch is located near enough to the tub that it can be shut down within seconds, if necessary. ' If your child does swallow water, as long as she is gasping or coughing, she's getting some air, says the American Red Cross. Simply let her "cough it out." If the situation is worse than that, administer rescue breathing or, if necessary, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Continued from Page B-I In documenting the 20-year testing program at Holmesburg Prison, Hornblum used the Freedom of Information Act to unseal old records. He found physicians who ran experiments and inmates who had been test subjects. He met Al Zabala, a thief who took part in the U.S. Army's chemical testing at Holmesburg. After a disorienting few hours in a padded cell, Zabala faced a barrage of questions from psychologists who returned him to his cell wearing a tag: "Please excuse this inmate's behavior. He can't think or act in a coherent manner." He left prison with $1,500 and some questions. Had the testing caused him, a few years after his release, to lock himself in the bedroom of his sister's house and refuse to eat for three days? Had it caused him to pass out at a bar one day? Zabala doesn't know. Neither do most of the other subjects who apparently were never checked for long-term effects, Homblum says. "You had some extremely destitute people in there. They were poor, uneducated, confined. They were taking tests when they had no idea what they were involved with," he says. "The guards thought the inmates were absolutely crazy. Uniformly, their responses were they didn't want to do it, but it's the only way to make money." The money was good: a few hundred dollars a month to accept a number of tests, and more money for the Army's chemical warfare tests. Compared to stamping license plates, which paid pennies an hour, the tests were lucrative, and nearly everybody wanted in. Inmates even sued after the FDA drafted rules banning the tests. Hornblum is most critical of Dr. Albert M. Kligman, then a Penn dermatology professor who ran the program for two decades. Kligman is known as the inventor of Retin-A, the acne and wrinkle remover that was first tested on a group of Holmesburg prisoners. . He went further than other scientists would go, Homblum wrote, and sometimes ran several tests at the same time on the same prisoners, which is considered poor science. "Kligman established something thoroughly unique in this country: a human research factory, a department store of expert* mental research," Hornblum says. Kligman refused to comment in detail about the book or his actions, saying only, "That's 30 years ago and I have a very differs ent accounting of it." ; Three tests particularly galled Homblum. — The Army tested an incapacitating agent, EA 3167, which it hoped to add to its chemical warfare stock. Inmates suffered hallucinations and confusion for up to three weeks. The prisoners' nickname for EA 3167 and the other mind-altering drugs they received was "LSD." ; — Kligman tested radioactive isotopes despite having littld training in radioactive medicine! To get a required license from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commis-; sion, he lied, Hornblum says; First, he named Dr. Benjamiri Calesnick as the radiation protection officer, a title Calesniclt denies having had. Later, Klig-. man fudged his credentials to get AEC approval as as protection officer, the book says. : A Penn spokesman says the tests were done before medical ethicists understood the vulnerability of prisoners.' "At the time that Dr. Kligman carried out these studies, the use of prisoners was widespread. So. he was not using a population; that, at the time, the standard; practitioners in the field would have viewed as different," says Dr. Richard Tannen, senior vice dean of Penn's School of Medicine. "I think now we know better," Tannen says. "We do view prisoners — even if they have given adequate informed consent and, have been paid — as a vulnerable population?" ' ; '' '" ; 'Encourage your child to read a newspaper every day, and one day that child will grow up to be king of the hill. -Grant Hill, basketball player . 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