10 -- Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, Thursday, July 18, 1963 Alaskans Will Be in Dark Trying to See Eclipse SOLAR ECLIPSE IN ALASKA -- This map shows the eclipse pattern in Alaska. An almost-total eclipse will be seen in all parts of the state. Areas within the darkened path will see a total eclipse. Towns within the path of totality include: Photograph Hints Given For Eclipse Photographers and amateur astronomers will be out in force on July 20 to record the solar eclipse as it passes over | Alaska. ! Since a good part of Alaska j is located within the area of I total eclipse, many Alaskans I will be able to view and photo- i graph this rare event. | Photographers may find this | information prepared by East-1 man Kodak Co. valuable in I planning their photographs of I the aurora. I One of the most important! things to remember in either j looking at or photographing the eclipse is that solar radiation is very powerful and can easily burn your eyes. Galileo -- the discoverer of the telescope -- was blinded in this | way. | Protect Your Eyes I To protect your eyes, you | should never look at the eclipse without some form of protection for your eyes. This goes double for your cameras, since the sun's rays will burn holes j in focal plane shutters, warp between-the-lens shutters, and 1 melt composition s h u 11 e r | blades. ! To protect your eyes you should use a filter which equally and sufficiently absorbs the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared energy of the sun. Sun Bethel, Aniak, Talkeetna, Curry, Paxson, Sourdough, Gulkana, Slana and Northway, Alaska, and Fort Selkirk and Snag, Y.T. Dark Sky Will Appear On Saturday ! On the morning of Sat| urday, July 20, a s o l a r | eclipse will occur and be j visible to everyone in Alas|ka. For 100 seconds the sky will be dark as the moon passes in front of the sun. What will you do when the eclipse occurs? Most Alaskans will look at it, try to take pictures of it, or, perhaps, wonder just what it is they are seeing. Scientists from the University of Alaska's Geophysical Institute warn observers not to lookj directly into the sun. The glare of sunlight will prevent good observations and will damage the eyes. Instead, look at the eclipse through a piece of heavily smoked glass or a piece of completely exposed and developed film. Sunglasses No Good Sunglasses do not provide adequate protection. If you cannot obtain either smoked glass or exposed film, make a simple observational aid by poking a tiny pin hole through a piece of heavy cardboard and look through it. glasses do not fall under this category. Medical authorities state that a neutral density filter of metallic silver with a density of at least 6.0 will provide adequate protection for visual use only. Such filter may be constructed by sandwiching together two completely exposed and developed layers of black and white photographic film. You should place the filter in front of your eyes before turning to look at the sun. AREA OF THE ECLIPSE - This drawing of the earth shows areas where the eclipse will be seen. Shadowed areas will have a partial eclipse. The curved black line cutting across North America is the "path of totality" -the area where a total solar eclipse will be seen. much the same as it is normal-1 a tripod and multiple expos- ly. Therefore, the best way to determine your exposure for the partial phases is to make test shots using various neutral ures, you can make an interesting record shot of the entire eclipse. Start about an hour to half an hour before totality. density filters well in advance j get up your camera on a firm of the eclipse For those with box cameras (cameras without any settings), use a medium speed film, such as Verichrome Pan with a 5.0 neutral density filter during the partial phases. Remove the filter during totality. For cameras with variable shutter speeds and lens open- Your camera must also b e j j n g S j the following formula, de- protected from the sun - es-j ve ] 0 ped by Charles Coles, for- pecially during partial phases of the eclipse. Use small lens openings and neutral density filters made for photographic use. Between exposures shade vour lens with a hat or white cloth if it is pointed at the sun. Aiming the camera can also be dangerous, since the sun can burn your eyes through the camera finder. This is especially true of single lens reflex cameras. The best system is to merely "point the camera" without looking through the finder. If you must look through the finder use the visual filters mentioned earlier. They should be held in front of the finder or camera lens. Photographic filters, such as neutral density filters, do not provide suitable protection for the eyes, since they do not filter out infrared energy. Use meriy of the American Muse- support with the sun-and-moon combination at one corner of the finder, so you will have room to record the whole event. Remember the sun and moon are constantly moving nearly 15 degrees per hour. The normal camera lens will have a taking angle which should give about a 2-hour exposure. After t h e eclipse starts, make an exposure on graph the surrounding landscape for unusual effects. Illumination varies rapidly during this period, requiring careful work with an exposure meter. For non-variable cameras, use a medium speed film, such as Verichrome Pan, and a shutter speed of about % second during totality. Just before and just after totality, light breaks through the valleys on the rim of the moon, forming what looks like a beaded necklace around the rim of the moon. This spectacular and extremely short- lived phenomenon is known as um of Natural History, gives a (to 10 minutes. simple neans of calculating ex-j During partial phases, sun- posure for partial phases of the I light filtering through small ..I:-- mu. , ,_ :_ (openings, such as between tree I leaves, forms "pin hole camera" images of the eclipse on the ground. These crescents eclipse. The formula is: f equals S x t x 10 (where -- f is the lens setting S is the ASA Speed of the film t is the shutter speed in sec-j onds. D is the density of the neutral filter in use For example, suppose we have a neutral density filter of 5.0, a film with an ASA the same negative every five "Bailey's Beads." For still cameras use the same lens opening and neutral density filter you used during the partial phases, but make the exposure three, Â° Â°Â« r . ** IÂ°" Â· ie cameras, open the lens three North Atlantic. Eye Danger In Viewing Eclipse Told The Fairbanks Medical Association today warned that viewing the eclipse of the sun to take plact Saturday could cause severe impairment of vision. The association strongly advised against the use of binoculars, sunglasses, smoked glass, photographic or X-ray film, or any other viewing device. There is no entirely safe method of viewing an eclipse, the association reported, with the exception of certain special light filters not generally available to the public. The association pointed out that permanent damage to thÂ« eyes may result from viewing the eclipse without adequate eye protection. If you want to look at the eclipse through a telescope, do not look directly through the eyepiece at the sun. Put a piece of white cardboard beneath the eyepiece so the image of the eclipse will pass through the telescope and be projected on the cardboard. Taking pictures of the eclipse will not be easy, because of the varying intensity of light during the different phases of the eclipse. Professional photographers suggest using a veri- chrome film with an exposure of 1/50 second at f/8. For motion pictures, use a 6-inch focal length lens for 16 mm. cameras and shoot at f/4. Beit Seats Available Alaskans will have the best seats in the house for this show. Although the sun will be partially eclipsed to observers in all parts of the U.S., the total eclipse will be seen in only two states: Alaska and Maine, will also be visible in parts of Canada. The moon's shadow will race across the world at about 2,000 miles per hour. It will start near northern Japan, move across Alaska to the southern tip of Hudson's Bay, and across Maine and off into the (")- Solid line across Alaska, Canada and Maine indicates path of total eclipse. Degrees of totality :. for other regions indicated by shading and map notations. ., Below: how eclipse occurs, v* and path through Mains. j^i. (See note at bottom for figuring mid-point of eclipse in your .- locality.).-" PATH OF TOTAL ECLIPSE nearest locality and its figure (such as 21.00) To figure approximate eclipse mid-point, subtract 5 hours for Eastern Standard Time, 6 for Central, etc. Thus 21.30 in a Central zone would be 15.30, or 3.30 p.m additional stops. uii uvc KLUuuu- iiicsc wcsucma r*,,..,*v.~ * *Â«r* can be photographed quite , During totality a easily using normal or snapshot hal Â° T/, he coron . a ~ a ?P ea F s exiJaires. ; around the sun, decreasing in beautiful appears exposures. brightness towards the outer of 40, and a shutter of 1-60. Then the lens speed speed would have to be set at f-8. Or, if the shutter speed were 1-30, the lens would have to be set at Ml. What to Photograph your exposed film filters for! Be gj nn ing a t ou t an hour be- aiming the camera, then switch fore tne tota) eclipse, the moon ,1 ..i. 1 -I....'!., Clinor. . r . _ to the neutral density filters to photograph the eclipse. Tesr Shots Good Idea lean be seen as it gradually j moves in front of the sun. Fol! lowing totality, it gradually During partial phases, the in-j moves on across the face of the tensity of the sun's surface is'sun and then disappears. Using During the last few seconds edge . On the outer edges you Â° f t Â° t a ' VaV shadows | ^ see equatorial streamers , , J * called shadow bands can bej somet j mes extending out sev- seen moving rapidly across the ieral ameteTS from the sun. ground. They are generaUy one; :in the inner p^,,,, of the to two inches in width and j corona solar prominences can five or six inches apart. They| be seen . Th( f se are scarlet " place a white cloth or sheet on , from b e h i n d the the g r o u n d . To photograph|moon's rim. Photographing the them use a white sheet on the j corona is rather tricky--a long fl^nnfonn^ if^ filn 3 i exposure makes the corona ASA 400-1200), a shutter speed i ,.-,.,. j iu -. t . , - -- and a ] ens I ver y bright and the equitatonal streamers very long, but over iexposes the inner corona. A short exposure will bring out opening of f 2 to f-3.5. Unusual Effects The deep shadows and dark- i uc u'-tu Duauvvr.3 QIIU uui i\ ,. j . i i -11 ness occurring during and ad-( the solar Prominences but will jacent totality make the pe-|not bring out the equitorial riod and ideal time to photo-1 streamers. Depending on the observer's location in Alaska, he will see a total or nearly total eclipse between 9:50 and 10:15 a.m. The path of totality can be intercepted by auto travelers at Northway on the Alaska Highway (Route 2), at Slana on the Glenn Highway, and at Sourdough on the Richardson Highway (Route 4). Talkeetna on the railroad and Gulkana on the Richardson are expected to be good viewing sites with little interfering cloud-cover expected. Also within the path of totality are Bethel, Aniak, Curry, and Paxson, Alaska, and Fort Selkirk and Snag, Y.T. Suggestions Given University of Alaska scientists suggest that observers, watch THE SOLAR ECLIPSE -- The sun (left) emits rays of light toward the earth (right). The moon (center) blocks those rays during a solar eclipse. The darker shadow of the moon just as the sun reappears -- j atmosphere of the sun shows up Baily's Beads may be seen. This is a thin edge of brightness around the moon which looks dramatically while the glowing sun is darkened by the eclipse. While the sun is partially hid- like a string of glowing beads, jden, some stars and plants may This effect is caused by light shining through the valleys and between the mountains along the edge of the moon. These shapes break up the light into a series of glowing bead-like dots. During the eclipse solar prom- inences may be visible. These are sheets of fiery gas that shoot up in the atmosphere of he sun. The shining gases are irilliant red and thousands of miles thick. They move at fan- :astic speeds -- sometimes 500,for the following events: ! 000 miles in half an hour. Just before the brilliance o f j You may see a silvery halo: the sun is covered -- and again]the corona of the sun. This outer appear in the darkened sky. There may be a sudden coolness as the temperature and humidity suddenly drop. When the eclipse ends, the shadow cone may be visible. This is the great mass of air that gets no direct sunlight during the eclipse. The cone will appear to rise from the earth and dramatically move up and away, gliding swiftly overhead from north to south. When the sun shines through small openings, such as between the leaves of trees, the ground hole camera. To see these images clearly, place a sheet on the ground under a tree where the images will be projected on it. Shimmering Light Another interesting phenone- non of the eclipse is the appearance of shadow bands--waves of shimmering light and shade that run parallel to the visible edge of ths sun. These narrow jands move rapidly, and it may necessary to place a sheet on the ground to see them. These shadow effects of the eclipse may be seen throughout will be dotted with small cres-'Alaska -- in partial eclipse is the area of total eclipse. Areas covered by the lighter shadow will have a partial eclipse of the sun. --University o/ Alaska Photo cents. Each will be formed ex-.zones as well as the area of actly like the partially-eclipsed j total eclipse, sun, but inverted. This effect is I Twenty-two eclipses of the sun similar to that caused by a pin-1 are expected in the ten years from January 1961 to December 1970, but most of them will occur in distant parts of the world. The last soiar eclipse seen in the U.S. was in 1943. Alaska was the only part of the U.S. from which it could be seen. The next solar eclipse visible in the U.S. will be in 1970, with a path of totality extending from Florida to Georgia. Astronomers from all parts of the nation will gather in Alaska to watch the eclipse, prior to a meeting of the American Astronomical Society which will be held at the University of Alaska July 22-24.
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