Lebanon Daily News, Lebanon, Pennsylvania Tuesday July 2, 1963

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Lebanon Daily News, Lebanon, Pennsylvania Tuesday July 2, 1963 - 1* Lebanon Daily News, Lfbinpn,, Pa., Tueidiy,...
1* Lebanon Daily News, Lfbinpn,, Pa., Tueidiy, July -2, 1963 CENTENNIAL EVENT — Bravery and valor was abundant on both sides of the line of battle as Union and Southern Confederacy forces opposed each other at Gettysburg July 1 to 3, 1963 for the decisive turning point of the war between states. This old time picture, an artist's conception of the Union forces during one of the battle engagements, shows how a virtual human wall of soldiers fired from a standing position at their human wall of enemies opposite them. The thoughts of the nation are being focused on this gigantic battle as the centennial anniversary is being observed in the Gettysburg area. The Battle of Gettysburg, which cost thousands of casualties on both side, was the bloodiest fighting of the entire war. Victory at Gettysburg for the Union forces crushed the last hope of the Confederacy to win the Civil War. Gettysburg Might Have Been By Newsman At Scene (EDITOR'S NOTE-Amoif the kills tenth «rf Getty*fcBrf a decisive i»d Mead? kittle wat akapUif 1M yean if> t»- day. Here IB Mir it aright have been reported by i e»rrt- •fMideftt at the teemt.) By TON HENSHAW ;/ GETTYSBURG (>P) — Gen. Robert E. Lee'* Confederate army scored minor gains today but the chief Union defensive lines held in heavy, bloody fighting among the hill* south of Gettysburg. •' , Maj. Gen. George G, Meade, commander of the Union Army of the Potomac, said late tonight after & staff conference that his battered forces plan to stay and fight it out" on the same field tomorrow ' It is apparent that the action around .this small 2,400 population south central Pennsylvania town is becoming one of the major battles in the War Between the States. Rebels Fire On Corporal, He Fires Back; Bloody 3-Day Gettysburg Battle Ensues i a (Continued From P»ft One) of the North The first one had been turned back in September, 1862, at ' the battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) in Maryland. , Both invasions -were aimed at the same objectives: Relief of pressure on war-ravaged Northern Virginia; access to abundant food and forage in Maryland and Pennsylvania; hope that a resounding victory would influence Britain' or France, or both, to intervene on the side of the South. That this climactic battle was fought at Gettysburg came largely by chance. •Meade had positive orders to maneuver his army between Lee nd Washington. Where and when e fought the Confederates was left o him. .He had chosen a strong wsition on Pipe Creek, just south f Gettysburg in Maryland. Lee originally had chosen Har- isburg, Pa., as his pivot point, rom there he could swing east oward Philadelphia or slant south-' astward toward Baltimore and 'ashington. But Lee was "blind." His "eyes" he cavalry of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. tuart on which he depended for ews of the Union Army's position vas ranging across Maryland into 'ennsylvania on a raiding party, ut of touch with the main army. Not until June 28 when his army vas strung from Carlisle across outhern Pennsylvania did Lee earn that the Army of the Po- omac had crossed from Virginia nto Maryland and was marching between him and Washington. This time the Union Army maneuvered on interior lines so advantageous for defense. Spy Brought Word Word of the Federal army's movements came to Lee by one of -t. Gen. James Longstreet's spies who had been in Washington with a pocketful of gold buying drinks or Union officers. Now Lee began to reassem- ile his army around Cashtown, 'a. Meade's army was coming rom the south. Gettysburg lay be .ween the armies. That was the way matters stood when Brig. Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew's brigade set out June 30 !or the shoes. then later in the day to Maj. Gen. 0. 0. Howard, commander of the XI Corps, when he arrived soon after noon. Two of the three XI Corps divisions were put into the battle and the third held as .a reserve. The Confederate 2nd Corps- Stonewall Jackson's old command —under Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell arrived in the afternoon from the north and hit the two XI Corps divisions, driving them back on Cemetery Ridge. That left Doubleday'r troops on Seminary Ridge in a dangerous position and they also withdrew to Cemetery Ridge. Ridges Stretch South These two ridges stretch south of Gettysburg like a big parenthesis. Seminary Ridge, named for the Lutheran Seminary on it, lies on the west and rises about 60 feet above the surrounding land'. Cemetery Ridge lies east of Seminary Ridge and south of Gettysburg, roughly parallel to Seminary Ridge. It rises about 100 feet. On the north end of Cemetery Ridge nearest to Gettysburg and to the east lies Gulp's Hill,a key flank position. At the southern end of Cemetery Ridge Little Round Top rises and directly south a higher hill, Round Top. The two round tops dominated that flank. So, largely by circumstances of the first day's fighting, the Union troops occupied the better of the two natural positions in the vicinity. tery repulsed the attack-in heavy fighting and saved the Federal right flank. Hood lost an arm there. Fighting Fierce North of the Round Tops, Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles, commanding the III -Corps, extended his line forward, forming what became known as "Sickles' Salient." The Confederates jumped 'at Sickles' mistake and drove the III Corps back to the top of the ridge. Meade saved the situation with troops from four other corps.'The fighting was fierce in the Peach Orchard, the Wheat Field and Devil's Den, names which became famous for valor after the battle. asked, "shall I obey and go forward?" . Longstreet bowed his head and made no reply. "Then, general, I shall lead my division on," Pickett said. Confederate Spectacle , . With that, the 15,000 Confederates on a front, nearly a "mile wide, banners fluttering in the July heat, started across the valley as if on parade toward the Federal position on Cemetery Ridge about a mile away. No oth er spectacle in the Civil War matched this display. : "Pickett's charge" was oh—that is the name which has come down in history for :this "last mile" of Gettysburg. As soon as the 15,000 were in range Federal artillery tore holes in their ranks with solid shot. The files closed and on they went. A little farther along Federal troops on the flanks poured in musket balls. The advancing gray lines—shorter now—broke ranks crossing the Emmitsburg 'Road, which ran about halfway between the lines, and re-formed on the other side, What Corporal Hodges saw in :he early light was a whole Con- r ederale division which had marched toward Gettysburg on word that the Federal cavalry was there. As soon as Buford saw he was facing the enemy in strength he fired the signal that was to bring up the Federal infantry encamped seven miles to the south. Buford dismounted his troopers and began to fight off the Rebels until the infantry could arrive. Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, commanding the I corps, heard the signal and started his men marching. Buford's cavalrymen fell back slowly—two miles in two hours— before the Federal infantry arrived. Units of the I corps wheeled into battle as they arrived. The fighting was furious, some of it hand-to-hand, and as vicious as any in the three-day battle. Pvt. Patrick Mahoney, Co. G, 2nd Wisconsin, captured Confederate Brig. Gen. James J. Archer single-handedly, throwing his arms around the officer and holding him until help arrived. About 10:30 a.m. General Reynolds was watching the battle through his binoculars when a Rebel sharpshooter spotted him and shot him through tht head. The command passed temporarily U» Maj. Gen. Aboer Doubleday, Late in the afternoon of July 1 Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock arrived and took command of the Union troops on the ground. Hancock liked Cemetery Ridge and began to dispose his troops along that line. One of his first moves was to occupy strategic Gulp's Hill. The high ground on the north end of Cemetery Ridge and Clup's Hill were important objectives for the Confederates. Late in the day Lee ordered Swell's Corps to take them but he qualified the order by adding that Ewell was to-make the attack "if he found it practicable" and that he was "to avoid a general engagement until the arrival of the other divisions of the army." Ewell did not make the assault despite the orders and out of his decision has grown one of the great questions of the Civl War. If Ewell had moved would victory have gone to Lee instead of Meade? Military men still argue about it. The gage of the first day's fighting lay with the Confederates but both Meade, who had come just after midnight, and Lee spent the night moving in the rest of their forces for the fighting to come. On the morning of July- 2 the Union army was stretched in a giant "fish hook," Gulp's Hill and the north end of Cemetery Ridge forming the "hook", the rest of Cemetery Ridge the "shank", and the' Round Tops the "eye". Lee's army lay in a half circle around the Federals, most of it on Seminary Ridge. Much of July 2 was consumed by maneuvering. About 4 p.m. the troops of Maj. Gen. John B. Hood attacked the Federals at the Round Tops. Only a Union signal squad occupied Little Round Top at the time. Maj. Gen. G. K. Warren, Meade's engineer officer, saw the danger. He ordered up the nearest troops on his own initiative. The Confederates swarmed over On the north end of the line nearest to Gettysburg Ewell decided about 6 p.m. to attack/one day after he had originally been ordered to do so. He sent three divisions against Gulp's Hill and the north end of Cemetery Ridge. The attack was made piecemeal. One force got a foothold on Cemetery, Ridge but it was driven back by Federal 'reinforcements. The drive on Gulp's Hill, lightly defended, was delivered feebly and fell back. The margin of the second day's battle lay .with the Federals. Climactic Day The third and climactic day of Gettysburg—July 3—started early with inconclusive fighting at Gulp's Hill. Then there was a pause as Lee mustered what he hoped would be the Sunday punch that would knock out the Federal army. He determined to assault the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. All morning he lined up troops on Seminary Ridge, his center, just out of sight of the Federals. The fresh division of Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett formed on the right. Pettigrew's division, which had been hurt in the first two days of fighting, formed the left. Old Brig. Gen. Isaac Trimble lined up two brigades behind.Pettigrew, Pickett placed the troops. .He commanded the right wing, Pettigrew the .left. Longstree^ was in overall command. In all, 10 brigades went on the line—about 15,000 men. Longstreet was to give the word to advance but his heart was not in the plan. He passed the responsibility to Col. E. Porter Alexander in charge of the artillery which was to deliver a barrage before the troops charged. Alexander opened fire at about 1 p.m. His 125 guns "shook the earth." Federal artillery answered —upwards of 250 guns all told were pounding the lines across the valley separating Seminary and Cemetery Ridges. The cannonade had lasted about dressing right under the brow of Cemetery Ridge. Here, they bore left, guiding on a clump of trees which marked the center of the Union line and their objective. Now Cemetery Ridge blazed with fire. The artillery switched to canister—shells which exploded and sprayed bullets in all directions. . _ Union batteries on -Little Round Top cut new gaps in the gray lines from the flank. Col. Franklin Sawyer of the 8th Ohio Infantry on a flank had a good view of Pettigrew's advance. "The front of the column was in early up the slope and within a few yards of the II Corps, when suddenly a terrific fire from every They gave three cheers. About the same "time the infantry charge was forming, the cavalry clashed north of Gettysburg on the flank. Stuart had arrived the day before from his raid around Meade's army. He tried to turn the Federal right flank. The fighting was spectacular, cavalry charging cavalry. But the attempt failed and had no bearing on the outcome of the • battle. Another cavalry fight on- the other flank was spectacular, too, but just-as inconclusive. Lee Exhausted About an hour after midnight- it was now the Fourth of July- Lee rode back to his tent, exhaust ed and dejected. Brig. Gen. John D. Imbpden, a cavalry officer was waiting. As Lee rode up "the moon show full upon his 'massive features, 1 Imboden wrote, "and revealed a expression of sadness that I hai never before seen oh his face. "General, this has been a har day on you," Imboden said. "Yes," replied Lee, "it has bee a sad, sad day to us." There was a i° n & silence, Im boden reported. Then Lee sptjk again: 'T never saw troops behav more magnificently . . . and if the Fighting today centered about | Little Round Top, a hill on the left flanlcof the Union army, and in a salient jutting out from the federal left. The Confederates captured the salient; the Union kept the hill. Losses High For the second day, losses were high. The Union 3rd Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles, 37, a Democratic former congressman from New York, was badly damaged. Sickles was wounded. Reports laid he may lose a leg. The Confederate attack came late, about 4 p.m., thanks largely to a tactical disagreement between Lee and his chief lieuten- nt, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, ommanding the Confederate ight wing. Instead of attacking, Longstreet xplained, he wanted to move round the Union army and fighl defensively on a more advantage us field near the federal capital »f Washington, only 65 miles away The main assault fell upon the surarice that h« would be, and in overwhelming numbers. At about 2 p.m., our line was advanced to the new position. We had »imply advanced to the front." Skklet Overwhelmed Sickles' corps was overwhelmed hile the rest of the Union army atched from Cemetery Ridge. Meanwhile, Longstreet saw that ittle Round Top, which domin- ies the Union left, had been ig« ored by both sides. He dis- atched the 15th Alabama under ol. William C. Gates to occupy About the same time, Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, Meade'a hief engineer, noticed the omis- ion from the federal side. "I rode down the hill," he said, and fortunately met my old irigade. I took the responsibility o detach the first regiment I truck, whose colonel, on hearing my few- words of explanation about the position, moved at once b the hilltop." The Union regiment, the 20th Maine under Col. Joshua L. Cham- Union salient, pushed forvjarc without Meade's permission 'by Gen. Sickles. Meade had directed sickles to remain in the Union de- ensive line atop Cemetery Ridge "This brought, the left of the line into the low ground," explainec 2161. Thomas Rafferty of New York, one of Sickles' regimenta commanders, "and into a positioi which enabled the rebels to ai :ack us with every advantage i :heir favor. "Sickles was satisfied his pos tion was untenable .should he be attacked, and he had every as had been supported as they wer to have been—but for some reaso not yet fully explained to me, wer not—we would have held the pos tion, and th« day would have, bee ours." (Lee never elaborated o the point.) ' Imboden received his instrui tions to guard the wagon train : Lee was going back to Virgini his second and last invasion failure. jerlain, readied the top of the lill about 10 minutes .before the Confederates. The Alabamans charged. The Maine line bent, :hen countercharged. Rebels Broke, Ran "We struck - the rebels with a fearful shock," said Theodore Gerrish of the 20th Maine. "They recoiled, staggered, broke and ran, and like avenging demons our men pursued. 'The rebels rushed toward a stone wall but, to their' surprise arid ours, two scores of rifle barrels gleamed over the rocks, and a murderous volley was poured in upon them at close quarters. "This uniooked-for reinforcement were our skirmishers, .who we supposed had all been captured." About 6 p.m., on the opposite end of the Union line, an attack by the Confederate corps of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell was hurled back-from Cemetery Hill and peace descended on the battlefield. available gun burst upon them.'" he wrote. "The distinct, graceful lines of the rebels underwent an instantaneous transformation. They were at once enveloped in a dense cloud of dust. Arms, head, blankets, guns,' knapsacks were tossed in the air . . ..a moan went up from the field . .. " Some of Pettigrew's men rav- elled away. Flesh and blood were nearing the limit. The mile .front now was a half mile front. Pickett's men on the right bunched for the last dash. On toward the crest of the ridge surviving Confederates of all the decimated brigades hit the low stone, walls where the Federals were-sheltered and fighting. Some of them spilled over the wall behind Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Armistead, only to sustain a fatal wound. The fighting was hand-to-hand. Muskets, pistols, sabers, cannon rammers—anything that came to hand was a weapon. The Federals fell back. The Confederates cheered. But the bluecoats rallied and poured in from three sides on the Rebel remnants. That was the limit of human endurance. Confederates Retreat The Confederates fell away from the stone wall. Some ran, some an hour when some of the Federal retreated slowly and sullenly, turn Round Top and started across the saddleback to Little Round Top. The 20th Maine and the 140th New Vork regiment* with one bat- guns quit firing. It was now or never, Alexander messaged Pickett. His ammunition was low. .' Pickett rode to Longstreet to gel the word to advance. Longstreet looked "like a lion at bay," Pickett reported, "grave and troubled." Pickett saluted. Longstreet looked him in the eye. "Pickett, I am being crucified at the thought of the sacrifice of life this attack will make. I have instructed Alexander to watch the effect of our fire upon the enemy and when it begins to tell, he must take the responsibility and give you your orders, for I can't," Just then L VIUC.A«* Aiexandi ler's message was handed to' Pickett. He pawed it to Longstreet. "Gtatrii Pickett ing to fire back from time to time. The spot-where Armistead died marked the "high tide of the Con federacy." There the gray tide created, held for 30 minutes or so, and ebbed back, slowly like an ocean tide! across the mile' back to Seminary Ridge. Of the 15,000 who started aboul one-third did not corn* back. Killed and wounded numbered 3,060; missing 2,260. Just over 2,000 Federals fell repulsing the charge. Lee met the survivors. 'lit was my fault," he said. General Meade rode up, to the "high water mark" just as the fighl ended. Told the enemy hid been repulsed, he exclaimed JThank God." Then he ,add«d ''Hurrah." The men who had done UM. /ifhlinf were more voluble * Twelfth Annual Community July Fourth Celebration Sponsored by the Lebanon City Police And Playground Association Thursday? July 4th COLEMAN >ARK Enjoy yourself with your family and friends this Thursday at Coleman 'Park! There'll be baseball, games, band music, swimming, and a really outstanding fireworks display. Your Police Department and Playground Association have planned it so that everybody will have a safe, pleasant holiday. Bring the family . . . spend the entire day at Coleman Park! 10:00 A.M. Kiddies' Games —up to 12 years 10:00 A.M. Swimming Events—12-16 years —Boys and Girls 10:30 A.M. Baseball —Optimists vs. Robel Frocks —Babe Ruth League 12:00 Noon Chicken Barbecue, Sponsored by Fir* Drivers Asso. and Benefit Fireworks Fund 1:00 P.M. . Littlt League Baseball — Optimists vs. New Penn 2:00 P.M. Perseverance Band Concert 4:00 P.M. Baseball — 5th Ward vs. Lebanon Plumbers — Babe Ruth League 5:30 P.M. Diving Exhibition — Coleman Pool 6:00 P.M. Little League Baseball— Wentzler's vs. LV.O. 7:00 P.M. F.B.I. Pistol Course i 7:15 P.M. Police Pistol — Hemlock Archer's Contest 8:00 P.M. Tten-age Dance — Henry & AI 9:30 P.M. Fireworks Program Save This Program . . .' It is The Only One Printed In addition there will be open events such as horseshoes, quoits and tennis. The Lebanon Fire Department First Aid and Safety Patrol will be in attendance during the entire day. Printed As A Public Service By , . . 737 Cumberland St., Lebanon

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  1. Lebanon Daily News,
  2. 02 Jul 1963, Tue,
  3. Page 16

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  • Lebanon Daily News, Lebanon, Pennsylvania Tuesday July 2, 1963

    sydneyh – 29 Jun 2013

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