Clipped From The Brooklyn Daily Eagle

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 - local In far We the give intelligent have at...
local In far We the give intelligent have at have it All subject of object of ot be of in and The task, civic their sub city a labor and virtually the plan last of report The imperative the that the City how it J. plan the many be the to of a the these subject city, best that as the the tn and traffic w professional this oi prepared possible and and C. The by give other ceremonies. Government Spends Millions To Equip and As Commercial Plane Lines Eagle Bureau, 901 Colorado Building. By JOHN BILLINGS Jr. Washington, Nov. 24 Although scheduled commercial flights over regular routes made up only 10 percent percent of the civil flying in the United States during the last fiscal year, the Department of Commerce is pushing forward an elaborate program of airway airway construction, according to the second annual report of the Director of Aeronautics Just made public here. This airway program, which is the Government's chief contribution to the development of commercial aviation, aviation, represents the expenditure of millions of dollars and the use of the best aeronautical and engineering skill In the country. ..... According to this report, tne uniteo. States is in effect still In the "Jazz stage" of flying. Nine-tenths Nine-tenths Nine-tenths ot its flying is composed ot sightseeing trips, stuoeos instruction, crup unking, unking, aerial photography, mapping, messenger service, advertising and private trips. Airways of Prime Importance. The develoDment of airways Di rector Young of this bureau considers of prime importance in advancing transport flying, despite the fact that such ft small percentage of flights at present make systematic use of these routes. "This established airway system is the backbone oi united States commercial aviation," he reports, reports, "though operations over this network form only one-tenth one-tenth one-tenth of all civil flying." More than $3,000,000 was spent on its development last year. ,, , Tne iramc on mese uoveiiuircun airways has increased so greatly within the last year that the Com merce DeDartment feels warrantea ir recommending their general extension extension to other parts of the country. At the end ot tne nscai year tne ITnlteH States had laid out 11,191 miles of marked airways, of which about half or 5.880 miles were lighted for night flying. Eighteen hundred additional miles are now in the process of being illuminated and some 5,000 more miles are undej consideration for this essential improvement improvement next year. Must Be "Fliable" at Night. The denartment holds to the policy that an air route, to be of real serv ice, must be "fliable" under any light or weather condition. This has led to a standard system of laying out these airways and supplying them with the verv latest eaulpment. At present some 27.000 miles are daily flown over the existing 11,000 miles oi air routes. Next year the department predicts that the scheduled daily mileage will mount above 40,000 over airways totaling 16.000 miles. The construction oi tnese ngntea airways as a meai.vs of advancing transport aviation by the government is historically comparable to the land grants of an earlier era as a method of developing railroads. The department department has concentrated on their improvement improvement until now they are rated as tne oest in tne worm. Beacons 10 Miles Apart. The standard airway, as described by the Bureau of Aeronautics, consists consists of large terminal operating fields linked together by a series of Intermediate or emergency fields every 30 miles. At every ten-mile ten-mile ten-mile interval Is fixed an airway Deacon 10 uuide the pilot through the nignt, The first problem in laying out an airway ls the selection of sites for the intermediate iields. Following the airline of the route as closely as possible, these are selected with an eye to level country, ruaas iiu i nu ways, centers of habitation and elec Irlfi nower lines. The last is very im portant for the proper illumination of these miniature fleuds that link toirether the great aviation terminals. In mountain country the fields are spaced closer together. Describing these fields, of which there are now 189 in Government operation, ui rector Young says: Rent Landing Field. "The standard intermediate field nrovides two landing strips or run ways of a length ot 2.000 feet and width of 600 feet, approximately at right angles to each other, with one trlp lying In the direction of the prevailing wind. Such a field has an rea of 4 1 acres. Landing strips may form a T. L. or . and the inner angles at the junctions of the strips are usually beveled off to provide additional additional diagonal landing space for use under conditions or strong cross winds. In rough country it is often possible to secure only one landlnj strip, in which case an attempt ls made to increase the width of such 'two-way 'two-way 'two-way field' sufficiently to permit landing diagonally Into strong cross winds. "The field surfaces should be fairly Light Airways level, and when not level must be free from sharp breaks in grade and well drained. "Fields are licensed for occupation for period ot S to 10 years, at an average cost of $7.25 per acre per annum annum throughout the United States. Beacon sites are similarly licensed at an average cost of $12 per annum. Owing to the constantly increasing public Interest in air transportation, It has been found possible to establish many intermediate fields on a cooperative cooperative basis, whereby the city or town at which the field is located rents or purchases the field and licenses it to the department at re duced or nominal consideration. About 20 percent of the intermediate fields established during the past year have been established co-opera-j co-opera-j co-opera-j co-opera-j co-opera-j lively with considerable saving in expense expense to the Government. Costs $5,000 to Light a Field. "Intermediate fields are marked by 50-foot 50-foot 50-foot (diameter) white circles at the intersections of the runway cen ter lines, with while panels 20 feet long and 2 feet wide extending from the outside of the circle along the runway center lines to indicate the landing directions. The circle ana panels are constructed of crushed rock tamped flush with the field sur face and whitewashed., rne Boun daries of the fields are maked by chrome yellow sheet metal cones 30 inches in diameter and 24 Inches in height." Explaining that It costs about $5,000 to light each o." these fields, Director Young then explains the kind of iluminatlon used: "The llKhting of intermediate fields comprises a beacon, boundary lights, range lights, obstruction lignts ana illuminated illuminated wind indicator. A standard 24-lnch 24-lnch 24-lnch revolving beacon is provided at each field. "Standard boundary lights. Installed Installed at intervals of approximately 300 feet around the perimeters of the fields, consist of waterproof prismatic prismatic globes mounted 30 inches above the ground, in which are installed 15-watt 15-watt 15-watt electric bulbs. "Range lights, installed In the boundary system and similar in all respecU to boundary lights, except that the wattage of the bulbs is increased increased by 10, and that the clear globes are replaced by green globes, are placed at opposite ends of the principal runways to aid pilots in making landings. Two such range lights are used at each end of the best or prevailing wind runway, and single lights mark the center line of the other runway." 1,000-Wait 1,000-Wait 1,000-Wait Beacons. Between these fields are located the beacons l.OOO-watt l.OOO-watt l.OOO-watt searchlights with a 2,000,000 beam candlepower at 10-mlle 10-mlle 10-mlle intervals. Each beacon rotates its upward beam six times a minute. If its electric lamp burns out, an Ingenious machine is ready to replace It automatically with another in a fraction of a second. This beacon ls mounted on a standard 51-foot 51-foot 51-foot metal tower. Two 500-watt 500-watt 500-watt 17.000 - candlepower searchlights are attached to this tower, as course lights. One points back along the airway, the other forward. forward. Their color is red. Their beam ls stationary. They flash a code signal signal from one to 10 corresponding to the beacon number along the airway. In this way the pilot will be immediately immediately able to locate himself at each beacon, or every 10 miles, along the nlfht course. To assist in daytime flying each bearon tower is set in the center of a gigantic directional arrow 54 feet long pointing along the course. Th9 arrow surface is painted chrome yellow yellow with the site number painted in black on the rectangular feather end. Altogether there are 1,020 of these tvacons in operation, according to Director Young, plong the Govern ment's airways. The 5 880 miles of lighted oirway In the United State' require the regular services of 493 caretakers and attendcits to main-'iin main-'iin main-'iin the intermediate fields and the beacons. CHRISTMAS I'UNP BALL. Interest is being evinced in the ar rangements for the charity ball and reception of the Brighton Beach Democratic and Social Club, 125-127 125-127 125-127 Brighton Beach ave., which will be held at the Half Moon Hotel Dec. 15. The proceeds will be applied to the fund created by the organization for the purpose of spreading cheer on Christmas to the poor . children of Brighton Beach and environs and to assist distressed Jewish families. rLAN 16TII A. D. BALL. To complete arrangements for the annual reception and ball of the Coney Island Democratic League of the 16th A. D. at the Half Moon Hotel on Dec. I, a meeting will be held at the clubhouse. Surf ave. and W. 15th St., next Tuesday evening. lng ting day a .mo and OI T ' ..v., ah r.-.. r.-.. and . tape On Lara a will be , I. ..... XW u he tlOn ... hi is ory, - of L. of who a is for of the is the at on

Clipped from
  1. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle,
  2. 25 Nov 1928, Sun,
  3. Page 58

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