drawings from 1896 article on republic of Taiwan

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drawings from 1896 article on republic of Taiwan - THE SUNDAY INTER O CEAN, JANUARY 5t 189G. ': A...
THE SUNDAY INTER O CEAN, JANUARY 5t 189G. ': A -BIG -BABY REPUBLIC History of Its Risa and Its Quick Undoing. THE FORMOSAN CAMPAIGN Incidents of the Ineffectual Resistance by Black Flags. Island Comes High to Japan, for Reduction Cost the Little Fel- lows S75,0O0,00O. Its From our Correspondent with the Japanese Army in Formosa. General Headquarters, I. J. A.. Talpehfu. Formosa, Not. 22. The Republic of Formosa has had a short and moat inglorious career. May 24. 1895, when the powers were officially notified and ex-Governor Tang declared President, the cspital was established in the north of the island, st Talpehfu. A large army had been mobilized STREET SCENE IX THE BIG in this city, and proclamations published about the country that, the Chinese would never submit, but "fight until death." Twenty British merchants, engaged in the American tea trade, were given a guard of thirty marines, and the Germans and their property were likewise guarded by twenty-five marines from a German man-of-war. The United States warship Concord called at this port, and the commander spent a few hours on shore. Evidently he did not think that the situation called for an American guard, or the Admiral that It was even necessary to have a ship call occasionally. We could not understand, however, why, with ten men-of-war In the East, it was necessary that all should be at the society ports In Japan ter China while American trade of between six and eight million dollars a year went un-nmtartixl in PnrmiHi. But. even aside from that, the important movement of the troops, the bombarding of the forts, and the methods of carrying on a campaign in a country like Formosa, could not help but be an object lesson of great vslue to our'navy. We may be involved in war with the Southern Asiatics at any time, but. as far as any benefits to be derived from practical observations made by our navy are concerned, the same blunders ;.and mistakes would be repeated that might be prevented if our navy watched and profited by the experiences of others. England and Germany were both represented, you may depend, not only by occasional visits, but by gunboats stationed permanently at the ports. The Chinese soldiers were divided into many different factions, and great jealousy had sprung up between the bodyguards of the Governor and the braves detailed as guards for an Admiral. A little dispute occurred one day, which ended in the Governor's soldiers severely thrashing one of the Admiral's guard, wbo had been found away from headquarters .unaccompanied. This resulted in a large number of bis companions, who had been informed, arming themselves, and they came tearing down the streets toward tbe Governor's ia"n, who at once made-rapid tracks for honi. There they barricaded themselves behind Jie Governor's palace walls, and then suddenly presented a bold and brave front. Seeing -he other soldiers approaching near the gates, they wished to show what bad. . tough men they were, so they fired into the crowd that had collected to witness the fun. with the result that twenty-eight innocent sight-seers were killed and nearly fifty wounded. The Admiral's soldiers were not fired upon because they bad rifles and probably would have returned the fire, and some one inside would have been hurt. The plucky 'defenders of his excellency, the President-Governor, have shown throughout that such affairs "no b'long my pidgin," meaning "entirely out of my line of business." The com mander then made his appearance, with the idea cf meekly inquiring what caused this useless waste of powder, which he should not have considered "his business." and probably would not if he had had another chance, for he was greeted with a volley of shot and then hacked to pieces, and possibly distributed among the visitors as souvenirs of the occasion. However, in justice to the soldiers, I might say that the officer had appropriated to himself $800 that the mother of tbe Governor had, upon her departure for China, left with him for distribution among the bodyguards as a gift from her. This, no doubt, had a great deal to do with the officer's sudden death. The wounded men were taken to the hospital, but the Chinese doctor in charge had barricaded tbe doors and refused to let them In. The poor fellows were placed beside the doorways and left to die. Soon, OCR CORRESPOND NT TRAVELING WITH THE ARMY. however, an officer, passing by, caused the doors to be broken open, and the doctor was forced to sttend to tbe wounded. The Chinese doctor lately supplanted a foreign doctor soon convincing the government that he could run the hospital cheaper. Upon establishing the republic an official "declaration of independence of Formosa" waa drawn up. as follows: "The Japanese hsve affronted China by annexing our territory of Formosa, and tbe supplications of us, the people of Formosa, at the do rials of the throne. hi boon mad in vain". We now learn that tbe Japanese slaves re about to arrive. "If we suffer this the land of our hearths And homes will become the land of savages and barbarians, but if we do not suffer it our condition of comparative weakness will certainly not endure long. "Frequent conferences bare been held with the foreign powers, who all aver that the people of Formosa must establish their independence before the powers will assist them, "Now, therefore, we, the people of For- nsou, are irrevocably resolved to die before we will serve the enemy, and we have in council determined to convert the whole island of Formosa Into a republican state, and that the administration of all our stste affairs shall be organized and carried on by the deliberations and decisions of officers publicly elected by us. the people. But as. In this enterprise, there Is needed, ss well as for the resistance of Japsnese aggression as for the organization of the new administration, a, man to hsve chief control. In whom authcrlty shall be assured. Therefore, in view of the respect anl admiration In which we have long held the Governor and Commander-in-Chief. Tans: Cblng-Sung. we have in council determined to raise him to the position of President of the republic. "An official seal has been cut. and on the second day of the fifth moon, at the ssu hour (9 a. m.. May 25). It will be publicly presented with all re pert by the notables and the people of the whole cf Formosa. At early dawn, on that day, all of ua, notables and people, farmers and merchants, artisans and tradesmen, must assemble at the Tuan Fang meetlng-hcuse that we may in grave and solemn manner Inaugurate this undertaking. Let there be neither delay nor mistakes. "A declaration of the whole of Formosa." The new flag was rather a pleasing com-blnsticn of a blue ground with a yellow tiger in the center, possessing a tail which took up more space than is usually allotted to a real tiger. After this bold and determined stand let SOUTHERN CITY, TIANANFU. us see how they fought. They were well equipped; the soldiers, in many casts, hav ing repeating rifles, including several thou sand Winchester repeating carbines. The fort, guarding one of the harbors In the north, contained four guns, consisting of one twelve-inch and one ten-inch Arm strong and two eight-inch Krupp guns. About three miles up the river, and on the right hand bank a long trench had been constructed along the mountain side and was defended by one eight-inch and cne six-inch Arm strong guns. Long lines of newly built trenches and ramparts, connected In such a way that troops might be marched out of sight and fire of tbe enemy, were mounted with a few new but mostly old mountain guns of all sizes and conditions; many of them absolutely worthless old relics that had laid burled in tbe ground ever since tbe Dutch were here. Ten thousand men were distrib uted along tbe river from Hobo to Talpehfu. Kelung, the best harbor in Formosa, and eighteen miles from the capital. Talpehfu was protected by splendid fortifications that crown many of the high hills and bluffs over looking the little harbor with its narrow en trance, and had distributed among them the following modern guns: One twelve-Inch, one ten-inch, two eight-inch, and two six-Inch Armstrongs, besides Kelung's apportionment of sixty Krupp mountain guns of six and one- half centimeters, and several machine guns from tbe arsenal at Nanking. Tbe Japanese landed tbe last of May, to tbe north, a short distance from Kelung. As soon as this news reached headquarters at Talpehfu, I joined a camp or 500 soldiers, wbo were ordered at once to Kelung as re-enforcements. I then received ray first correct impressions o Chinese soldiery. Tbe Republic's Amy. We made the trip on the government rail way, and I was In tbe officers' car attached to tbe special train conveying tbe troops. The station was crowded with the brsvessnd their luggage, which, from its character, would lead one to believe they Intended "housekeeping" on the battle-field. Rifles, bayonets, two-handed swords, knives of all sizes and conditions, cartridge belts with eighty rounds of ammunition, a blanket, and a bowl for rations, composed the equipment In reason: but this was the smallest half of their luggage. Fans, umbrellas, dishes of all kinds; lamps, lanterns, baskets containing pipes, packages of tobacco, small boxes, pictures, tea pots, tin cans, pieces of rope, rags, pieces of iron, and other miscellaneous stuff too numerous to mention. Next came beards and sticks fastened together and bun dies as big as bushel baskets containing I know not what. It was raining st the time and these disciplined soldiers were quarreling, pulling, and pushing to ride In three of the covered cars rather than n the flats. Arriving at Ke lung I found this city in a great state of excitement, for tbe Japanese were drawing near. Retreating soldiers were straggling in from tbe battle-fields all day, and although four Japanese heads stuck on bamboo poles were exhibited about the city it was only too evident that the Japanese were slowly driving tbe Chinese forces ahead of them, and would soon arrive in the city. The Chinese who brought In the heads were paid tbe schedule price. 100 taels (about ICO gold) for each, and a proclamation was posted about the camps stating that 30.000 taels would be paid to the soldiers who would drive tbe Japanese back to the sea. The next day several Japanese men-of-war bombarded the ports, two columns of infantry closed upon tbe city, and tbe battle commenced. In a few hours all was over and tbe Japanese were in complete possession snd the remnant of the 12,000 "well-equipped" Chinese soldiers were scampering over the hills for aafety, a thousand remaining on the field dead. In the Japanese field hospital were seen many interesting cases, illustrating the wonderful penetrating power of the small-caliber bullets. One Chinese had been shot through his back,' through his right lung, and then the bullet through his arm. which must hsve been close to his body. Tbe wound In his back was a small red spot, as large around as a lead pencil; on his chest a wound somewhat larger, while his arm contained a hole large enough to put one's finger through, and the bones were badly shattered. Another case was that of a man who had been shot in the elbow Joint, the bullet following along In the arm through to the wrist, and striking the small bones of the band, literally tore It to pieces. The aperture at the elbow resembled a small round burn, with the skin off. No opening could be seen, and from the appearance of the arm one" would think It uninjured. Upon returning to the city I found the rumor current that the President (or rather ex-Governor), commander in chief of all the forces, was, like the other brave Chinese commanders preceding him, going to attempt an escape to the mainland that night; which. If such movement waa carried Into execution, simply meant thst the city was going to be handed over to the 20,000 Chinese soldiers. Therefore, I wss Interested In finding out the truth; so started, under the cover cf darkness, for the Governor's palace. Arriving at tbe wall about midnight, speaking to the gusrd, and shoving a dollar through the opening between the massive gates. I was promptly admitted and passed through the comparatively quiet streets, the heavy rain and pitch darkness driving every one not having business outside under shelter. Reaching the yamen I saw a big guard outside the gstes. ready to fire on any suspicious parties. After satisfying the guards inside that I bad business with the Governor and presenting another dollar I was admitted through the gateway, opened Just wide enough to let me through, then closed, and the big, heaty beam placed across and securely fastened. Tbe guards were keeping very quiet, and evidently anticipated trouble before the night was over. Messengers, dripping with rain, were arriving constantly, probably from Kelung. The apartments about the yamen were stripped of everything of value, and to all appearances it was tn-teuded to leave soon. I called on Tcheng Ki-Tong. the Governor's adviser, and he Insisted that they bad no Intention whatever of de serting. However. In less than three hours tbe yellow tiger had gathered In his long tall and lain down and died for lack of nourlsn ment. and the republic of Formosa in the north ceased to exist. Tbe President had made an unexpected exit; the Minister of For elgn Affairs had urgent business elsewhere; tbe eight members of Parliament, who had been drawing the princely salary of 50 cents per day, had gone down the river to Hobe to escort their families to tbe mainland; and all there was left of the treasure was being fought for by a crowd of murderous fiends, who were making night hideous with their yells. Thus was the ten-day, republic fast fading away! (loriona Lnat Days. The Governor had divided $50,000 among his body guard to allow him to leave the yamen. and when other soldiers called to demand their pay they found the Governor "not at home." It did not take many minutes to veut their rage on the yamen, which was fired; and every other bulldi:ig belonging to an official was promptly broken into and looting commenced. The conutant crack of the rifle could be beard on all sides and warned us that, while we watched this beautiful spectacular reproduction of the "last day of the republic," we had a city full of frenzlej Chinese who also required watching. No one seeius to know exactly how or when the ex-Governor got away. It was rather queer how he could escape the Chinese soldiers, who were watching his every move. The looting of the treasury, which contained only silver dollars, led to considerable lots of life. Greedy soldiers, anxious to carry off as much as possible, ran away with dollars wrapped up in clothes, dropping them along the way. It is a fact that in one of the streets near Banka dollars could be fouud all along the way. It did not take long to carry away tbe lew nunureo tnousana dollars tuai the officials bad been forced to leave, Dut woe to the Chinaman who was found by tbe crowd with more than his share of tbe silver. Fifty feet from the English Club lay the body of one looter, who mas actually kicked to death and the $500 he had was taken from him. Another was lying on the sidewalk with his throat cut. and the rats m-ere st the body al most before it ceased to breathe. Returning to the city, we found a string of Chinese passing to and fro with loot. Ib the procession could be seen bars of lead, tin. copper, brass, big pipes, small pipes, pieces of machinery, parts of guns, cartridges, big sheets of steel, boxes of nails, screws, a Gal- , ling gun. long steel and sheet Iron bars; In ) fact, everything that they were able to carry away was taken. Four coolies were laboring alcng carrying a large field piece. I inquireJ bow much they wanted for it. and was in formed that $6 was the msrket price for big guns. I told them that was too much, and succeeded in getting them down to $2. but there they stuck; upon going away I was greatly amused to see them throw It down snd run after me. I Informed them mat l nan changed my mind, and was not buying Gat- ling guns just then. I expect tney would nave been happy to sell It for a few "cash." Many similar Incidents occurred, especially- -wltn heavy castings. They never hesitated at grabbing It at tbe arsenal, but after they had carried it several blocks and it began to get heavy they would usually stop and look at it. nd If a foreigner came by tney would oner to sell it for 15 or Izo. but would come oon to a string of cash, and then, finding no pur chaser, would leave It on tbe street and run full speed bsck to tbe arsenal for another load. A brand new Gatling gun complete went begging for a few dollars: cases of cart ridges were lying about the streets free to any one wno would carry tnem; gooa ruie could be purchased very cheaply; brand new Winchester magazine carbines could be pur chased for )1. and many common rifles wets thrown away. After the day was finished, a foreigner who had originally been connected with thearsen al informed me that 150 tons of the best selected English copper Ingots and Japanese copper slabs, twenty tons of tin, 100 tons of rpelter. besides an enormous quantity o copper and iron pipes, brass sbeetlng. etc. bad been carried off, including the Injured machinery. It would take $500,000 to relit the arsenal. Much indiscriminate shooting occurred, and In the morning a woman was brought in wounded, and died In tbe evening. Another woman brought to tbe doctor of tbo German marines ber child, a little boy, with one arm badly shattered by a shot at close range. At least $1,000,000 worth of property had been looted. In the evening a fire was seen in the powder mill, and the native city was again fired. About 6 a. m. tbe next day tbe powder magazine exploded, with one long-drawn-out report, which shook the houses and turned everybody out hurriedly into tbe streets. The magazine is located perhaps a mile and a half from the city. Arriving on the scene, about half an hour after the explosion, I found the ruins still smoking, while unex- ploded powder was lying about everywhere in big plies, wfth here and there a little stock of boxes containing powder, dynamite, or fuses. The paddy-fields contained very evenly dis tributed fresh earth and debris from ths buildings, and plastered with dirt or partially covered with the mud and muck could be seen dead and wounded bodies of Chinese. some so disfigured thst only the semblance of human beings wss the quivering flesh of a mangled trunk, besmeared limb, or the hair attached to a head Just protruding from the mid. It was a ghastly picture, the wailing and crying of the wives and mothers adding to the tearfulness of the scene. Loo tin and Lawlessness. With characteristic apathy, the Chinese were standing by. watching the wounded and laughing at their dying groans, and doing absolutely nothing to aid them. I have seen many Instances of this unfeeling cruelty. even In my short sojourn in China, and the brutal character of these fiends Is almoi: beyond comprehension. Including the wound ed wbo died during tbe day, over 100 were killed. The Japanese had not yet arrived; the city was in Imminent danger of being burned: murder was of frequent occurrence, and. frenzied by lack of opposition, the looters were growing bolder. Something had to be done. The Japanese must be notified. It wss decided thst three foreigners should make the trip. Messrs. Ohly, Thompson, and myself volunteered, and started on our ten-mile tramp about noon, hoping to reach the Japanese lines and Induce the General to send a detachment at once. We were heavily armed and were accompanied by a Malay, a Chinese carrier, and a Chinese flagbearer. I will not describe our exciting trip, but we were successful. Tbe Japanese received us royally, and sent 600 men back with us at once. Arriving Just outside the city, the commander thought it best, as It wss then 2 a. m., to watch affairs from a short distance outside, and, unless there wss urgent need, not to march in until morning. Contrary to the Japanese advice, we thought it best to return and report our success to our foreign comrades. We, therefore, started out for the city, meeting with no mishap until entering the limits, when six shots were fired at us at close range, but, thanks to the darkness snd the ordlnsrily poor aim of the Chinese, we escaped with only a shock to our nerves. Very exciting were tbe events then occurring In other parts of the island, but I have not space to mention them. Upon the Japanese taking possession of the cspital. coolies were employed at once In Cleaning the streets and gutters, and removing the refuse to the riven -Such a clearing up and a cleaning up of ttie old town had not been seen since the first days of lu exist ence. And the Chinese were notified, now that they bad been shown how. taey must keep the streets clean 'about their premises. This might have been looked upon by many as a treat Insult. "The Japanese might make all manner of unreasonable rules and we would submit, but to Insist that we clean up. It Is too mucb; it la the cruel crushing under of a defenseless people. If we give in to this base imposition the Japanese might gain courage enough, who knows, to demand, we take a bath!" But I am pleased to notice that without further crdera many of the Chinese are now dally cleaning up about their houses. Upon application to the Imperial Prince. and presenting my former credentials. I wss coroially welcomed (Tor tne Japanese have great regard for Americans and American Institutions), and was attached to the guard division, and every facility furnished me in my work. His Excellency, Admiral Viscount Kakay-ma, was installed as Governor, and preparations were- commenced at once for the ad vane Ing of the troops to the south. Formosa, the reader must bear In mind. Is larger than both New Hampshire and Vermont, and as It Is without railroads except a short line in the north, traveling is extremely difficult. After six days' fighting Tekcham, a city of considerable importance . to the South, was captured In the latter part of June, and frcm then on to Sept. 1. when the big inland city of Changwba waa taken, fighting was Incessant. Tbe Japanese have suffered greatly with disease, and many died. At Changwha over 600 V lit PJ 1 If ENTRANCE GATE TO WALL SURROUNDING CAPITAL, TAIPEHFU. Chinese were killed. Before resching the city nearly thirty streams of different sizes had to be forded, and with Insufficient food, as the supplies in many cases could not be forwarded, the troops were In much weakened condition. As there bad been heavy rains for several days, Changwha was nearly flooded, and as there was no method of draining the city, it could hardly be called a very healthy resort for soldiers already 111. Work waa commenced at ence to bury the dead Chlnete. but it was necessarily slow, and it waa a week before all the bodies were disposed of. many having been found concealed? ra the underbrush and In tbe river. The feverish damp heat of this tropical island showed Its effects very soon, tbe stench from the unburied deed poisoning tbe sir. From the highest officer to tbe lowest coolie, all were ill with fever, and one-third of the whole division was incapacitated. Only tbe most serious cases were taken to the field hoepitals. although they numbered 824. and of them eighty-two died. Of the hospital corps, one chief and five doctors, three were sick, so that only two were left to attend to the great number of dying men. Sixteen out of the forty-one nurses were down with tbe fever, and one had died. For several weeks the sick men were carried to the rear at tbe rate of a hundred a day ; the dead were cremated, and their ashes placed in little graves marked with a memorial board. The Chinese dead were thrown in cng trenches. Many of my friends were among the dead, including General Yamane and Lieutenant Colonel Ogata sacrificed that the greatness of their beloved ccuntry might be enhanced! Good Fellows tbe Japsarse Officers I ha ve been in many perilous sltustions during the last few years, that would be considered dangerous, but nothing to compare to this fever pit. And when the opportunity came, and I leit this reverlsn cole of danger and death for the high plains to the north, I felt like getting down on my knees and thanking God for his kindly deliverance! I was leaving tha guard division to Join the second division in the North, and during a four months' association I can truly say I was the recipient of the greatest kindness and cordiality from tbe Japanese officers. On the second morning of travel we reached tbe Taikal River, which waa swollen from late rains, snd found it impassable. It was only a question of wait, and It was three days before any one sttempted to cross. It was then thst two Jspanese coolies plunged Into the stream to swim to the opposite bank, but the powerful surging current drew them under. and the poor fellows were carried out to sea. The fourth day a line was thrown across, and by its aid we reached safely the other bank. Owing to the condition of the mountain stresms, no horses could be used, so Mr. Ka-sawa-Mura, my companion and interpreter. and myself were carried In the Chinese chairs. we using, together with the baggage-carriers, twenty-one Chinese coolies. With one Chinese cook snd my Japanese servsnt. we msde quite an imposing party of twenty-five. Arriving at Tslpehfu. after twelve days of travel, during which time we traversed ItlS:... - f 1 - TWELVE-INCH GUN CAPTURED BV JAPANESE. about 300 miles. I found the city filled with soldiers, and every one preparing for tbe expedition against Liu Y"ungfu, the famous chief, with his equally famous army of Black Flags, who, according to their own bluster, were going to drive the Japanese into the sea if they only had the chance) The gTeat Liu Tungfu was originally chief of the Black Flag band, on the Tonkin fron tier, the Black Flags being former rebels, and their descendants, who established themselves In that region, living free-booters, and levying toil on the trade between Tonkin and China. Probably he possessed some administrative ability; indeed, he gave evidence of that In Formosa, and he wss able to keep his men under control and consolidate his own power. When the French and Chinese wsr broke out his assistance was gladly availed of by China, and he carried on a tolerably safe guerrilla warfare, acting Independently of the Yunnsn and Kwangel armies..-but In communication with both. While he was credited with tbe most daring and fearless cour- ' age, ft never transpired that he accomplished any feat of bravery, but his assistance, such ss it was. waa deemed of seme value by the Chinese government, and when the war was over it was necessary to deal with him in some wsy. It would have been Impolitic to leave him on the frcctier. because the French would have objected. to that, and It would not have been a very caiy thing to destroy him and bis band In their .mountain fastnesses, for the Black Flags, small as might be their value from a scientific military point of. view, were a great deal better than the ordinary rabble that goes to make up a Chinese army. It was therefore decided to con fer upon him a military title, and give him official employment. Tears passed by. and once more China wss plunged Into a war with a foreign power. Liu waa sent off to Forme sa, and great hopes were entertained as to bis abilMy to bold the Island, even after Its forma! cession had taken place. 'The reign of Liu In Formosa dates bsck to the early days of June, when President Tang, tbe ex-governor of the Island-, made his escape from Talpehfu, tbe Northern capital. Upon the Japanese arrival In tbe North, of course, the republic ceased to exist in thst district, but ss they occupied only one-third of the island, the leading Chinese of the South determined that the republic should continue, so Taicanfu. the big Southern city, was choaln capital, and Lin was Installed in a large Chinese palace and elected President. Of course, the great question was funds (it alwsys is with tbe Chinese), so, besides the regular land taxes, the poor people were forced to produce In money 5 per cent cf the vslue of their possessions. The customs were continued ss usual, and brought mucb into the republic's treasury. An executive council, elected from tbe Parliament, consisting of seven Senators, sat in the city every afternoon. There can be no doubt that Chang Chl-tung and other high Chinese officials of the mainland secretly supported Liu, snd. through him. the people, in carrying on this scheme. As a fact. Chang Chl-tung. who Is the Viceroy of two of tbe big provinces of China, forwarded money, men, and arms in considerable quantities to Liu. Indeed, this support only ceased within the last month, and even then the high supporters In Nanking and Foochow. at least verbally, pledged themselves to redeem the paper notes Liu was obliged to issue as pay ment to bis troops. This Is but another proof of tbe duplicity and rottenness of tbe govern ment that formally banded the island over to the Japanese and then secretly carried on war agahist them in the same territory. The Kennblle's Flat raprr. All government payments In the new republic were made in paper nctes cf the face value of $1. $5. and $10. proclamations being issued calling on merchants, customs, and all tbe people to accept them as g3od and valu able tender, For some time tne notes were redeemed at par. but later on silver re demptions were suspended, whereupon bond notes were issued, these being guaranteed by rich men in the capital. Another form (a speculative note) was circulated, which promised to pay the holder $5 for every $1 note presented, out of the government revenues, after peace bad been declared. A postal system wss a. so organized as a money-raiser. Proclamations were published that postal agencies would be estab lished in the large cities of tbe mainland for distribution of letters bearing the republican stamps. Two issues of these tock place, the first, impressed from a locally-cut silver die. was on a thin tissue paper, unperfzrated. A new die was then obtained frcm Canton, and a new issue of stamps impressed from the Canton die were made. These were In three colors green, violet, and red. but all were perforated. Tbe face value of the different stampa was 3, 5, and 10 cents, respectively. President Liu decreed that all letters posted through the local offices should be stamped, and tbe bags were duly visited to insure this having been done. A final effort to replenish the repleted treasury wss made by taxing each passenger flying from the island, and there were many thousands dally. The rate varied from $2 to $4 and $6 each, according te the financial standing of the fugitive. Liu's force numbered about 30.000 well-armed men. At one time a band of savages from the South, all rigged for the warpath, made a pretense of joining Liu. They were encamped in the city, and only received food for their services. Two died, whereupon the remainder decided that thia was a bad omen, and so, tsking the .dead upon their backs, they all suddenly diaappeared in the forest, snd have never been heard of since! In the meantime tbey had received arms snd ammunition from Liu, which will be to them ample recompense for their trouble. The Japanese forces assembled at the Pes-cadore Islands, and then divided, one division, under command of Takaahlma, landed to the north of President Liu's cspital, Tai-nanfu; the other division, under command cf General Nogi, and which I accompanied, landed to the south of Liu's principal fort. Evidently Liu began to lose courage when he was Informed that tbe Japanese troops were actually drawing near. It was easy to boast of his bravery while he squeezed the poor people of their savings, but to fight and prove his courage was quite another thing. We Isnded without difficulty, and. after several days of fighting, with our aidealways victorious, we reached Liu's fortified city, Takow, only to find that the Japanese navy had captured the place. They had opened fire on the forts at a range of 6,000 yards. Forjthe first half hour the forts responded, but after this their guns were silent, and It was evident that Liu's brave black flags had sssJW r - evacuated and retreated Inland. In round numbers, I should say, the forts fired twenty- four rounds, tbe best shot being from an eight-inch breach-lodlng Armstrong gun. in j for Apes Hill fort, which struck tbe water about But 500 yards from the man-of-war Manlwa. The : duty, Tslyuen. tbe cruiser captured from the . of Chinese at Wei-Hal-Wei, bad her share In ! resort, the bombardment. . I right The damage done to foreign property was ! bls-inflnltesimal.. and a British navsl officer. J torlcal senr-who bad seen more than one bombardment. I Jce condl-informed me thst be was surprised to see so ) tlon little destruction to the buildings on shore; ( - he said that be thought It arose from the i Jspanes Admiral's consideration In bom-! should barding on such a bearing that tbe forts and bouses were not In transit. Seven Japanese men-of-war took part in tbe action. I joined the navy dispatch boat Sakio Msru with the Intention of witnessing the bombardment at Anplng. Liu's principal port, three miles from his capital. Imagine our surprise when arriving off the forts, and In range, to find tbe guns silent, and no soldiers visible, and tbe white flag flying. Fire Months of Flsjbtlna; Rewarded. Parties were at once sent out from tbe fleet, and. npon landing,, found that the black flags had thrown down their arms and surrendered unconditionally. Thus the Japanese, after nearly Ave months of fighting, came into complete possession of Formosa, and the republic, after five months' precarious existence, ceased to be. The Chinese troops were almost starving, having had scarcely any food for two days. Tne same aay tney were sent to tbe mainland aboard Japanese transports. With the knowledge thst eight Japanese heads hsd been exposed in the adjoining flats, and five of them even then rotting In i the sun. it is not to be wondered at that very little sympathy was felt for General Liu and his followers, who have not. in one single engagement, steed before tbe Japanese troops. Hcwever, every possible kindness was shown the vanquished1 enemy. But what about tbe brave General ana President Liu Yung-Ku. who was to oppose the Japanese "until death?" only three dsys before, when he csme down from the capitol to inspect the forts at Anping? He remained in the fcrt until dusk, and then, with his body guard, he marched out Into the darkness and has not been seen in Formosa since; but appeared a few days later In Canton, on tbe mainland, where he was received with due honors. In resisting the Japanese in Formosa after the island had been formally ceded by tbe Emperor of China, he apparent ly committed an offense against his own government, but the'only blame attached to him was that be ran away and did not succeed in defeating the Japanese, after the imperial government had furnished him troops, arms, and money. Japan could rightly force China to settle for the expenses of the conquest, and indemnity for the lives lost; but they will, no doubt, waive any claim, especially as they are hampered In their dealings with the Pekin government by Russia, France, and Germany, as they, no dcubt, would oppose an additional indemnity. The struggle in For mosa-In some resnects was the greatest of the wliole war. The cost exceed $75,000,000, which will make quite a hole In tbe indemnity. Tbe Japanese loss by battle will reach about 400; the death by sickness will reach at least 4.000. including the imperial Prince, Kitashlra Kawa. General Yamane. Lieutenant Colonel Ogata, and many others cf their best officers. The Chinese loss by battle will reach about 7,000. Of loss by sickness It Is Impossible to make any estimate. I leave In four days for a cruise completely around Fcrmoia. with the intention of endeavoring to find a proper landing place somewhere in the unknown eastern districts for my expedition into the interior. I shall still remain attached to the Japanese srmy; and I am promised every assistance until my work is completed. JAMES WHEELER DAVIDSON. HOW TO PREPARE FOR WAR. Just Quarrel and the First Blow Go a Long Way Toward Victory. t- - "The Secret In every free country, numbers without organization are helpless; and with it. omnipotent." To prevent war, foreign and domestic, paradoxical as it may appear, is the raiscn d'etre of an army in a republican form of government. Washington's respected maxim, "In time of peace prepare for war," was intended mainly to preserve peace. Lincoln and Grant, our war martyr and hero, were eminent as peacemakers. A progressive Christian civilization has proclaimed universal brotherhood as the normal condition of mankind only to be disturbed by human passion or national weakness. No republic should be founded upon military conquests, as were all the aristocracies of the middle ages, where "the conqueror was the noble and the vanquished became the serf." From its mission among the nations cf the earth, a republic should leave aggressive wars to be waged by monarchies whose "glory is to slay." De Tocque-ville speaks of military glory as "a scourga which is more formidable to republics than all evils combined." Nevertheless a republic especially, owing to its decentralized powers of government and following the first law of nature seJf-pres-rvaiion must be prepared to defend itself against enemies without or within. The amount of force required to do this regulates the size of such sn srmy snd degree of its scconrplishmcnt measures its efficiency. A consideration of the subject will show that any form of army organization adapted to the United States must satisfy, more or less, tbe following essential conditions: 1. It must be founded : upon tbe great principle of tbe subordination cf the mili tary to the civil power. Tbe army must exist by sanction of the constitution. These results are accomplished therein mainly by vesting in Congress the powers to declare war and to raise and maintain armies, by constituting the President the Commander- in-Chief, and by limiting tbe period for which appropriations of money for military purposes can be made to two years. With these checks no standing army, properly speaking, as for instance tbe standing army- of Russia, can exist In this country. On this point Bryce. in bis "American Commonwealth," observes. VNo p. lincji i.vfcteui wuuia otter greater riistiuc- to an attempt to create a standing army." The organization popularly termed the regular army in tne united States Is not a standing army, as it is sometimes designated by our Intelligent citizens, for the service therein is voluntary, and Congress by a single act to that effect or even by a refusal to provide tne necessary appropriations thereror, might wipe the army "horse, foot, and dragoens" out of existence. By statute law or acts cf Congress the exact form tf army organiza tion, both regular and volunteer, is deter mined. 2. Military service must be voluntary. John Stuart Mill says: "Representative insti tutions must necessarily depend upon the readiness of the people to fight for them." The great mass of citizens should be left free to pursue profitably tbe avocations of peace. We Mast Be Good Minnie -Men. Universal service, the most costly in the long run of all systems. Is, as a rule. Incom patible with republican Ideas of govern ment. This state of affairs makes it all the more the imperative duty of every able-bodied citizen to train himself in the use of arms for his country s defense. It remains for the people as final Judges, aided by the best military judgment and experience of the Republic, to determine through their representatives the extent and mode of military service. As such citizens are supposed to be men of intelligence, a short service peace enlistment, say two to four years In the National Guard, tor the required number, would be sufficient for this purpose. 1 The schools of the soldier and company might be taught to great advantage In our public schools, over all of which should wave the flag of freedom. This combination should remind the future citizen that a republican form of government which It is bis highest duty to defend is founded upon the educa tion moral,' physical, and menial of the masses. His war service should be inspired by patriotism rather than by bounties or pensions; although tbe care of a republic for its maimed and aged veterans and the widows and orphans of soldiers who; have served their ' ( cf vicus experts tactics., of ploy maintained larger , iur be enlisted extra peace duties make time can service the highly should great 4. quick the been brings less mobilization be ! soldier. are system. 5. representative from or no said ought in attachment -im,nil,t.. military the from cnoscn. officially must "of people." tional It were. The and proportions distribution of military the army eral peculiar require snd for republic upon that these organization armies, Congress. The Is, the organization and appointment of war. yet becoming Monroe political must Intervention. shown defend changing world, auspices. bearing "new The of a fcrm spirit its esprit not itself assumed individually ent to dinate, tive and. sive that not beyond "Is "It or tw "He more York an the rural Thirty-Second Brooklyn are of Kings, political The what K:rer. population, scarcely In square the square the four ago were plenty and, if -on have sea. A Poet Jor thee. Miss (Poet

Clipped from
  1. The Inter Ocean,
  2. 05 Jan 1896, Sun,
  3. Page 15

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  • drawings from 1896 article on republic of Taiwan

    barclayp – 16 May 2013

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