History of York Co 1899

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SUNT) AY MORNING, THE PHILADELPHIA TIMES. AUGUST 27. 1899. 1G YORK COUNTY A Coming Celebration of the Sesqui-Centennial Will Fittingly Commemorate the Creation of the Countij A Week of Cioic Ceremonies Arranged. . , OPiEj ween lioul Iti-unj iuiit u'u"Jt the fifth In the Province of Penn- sylvania created under the Froprle- 3 .. ,,, . , .. , . ., taryship. will begin the celebration NE week from to-day York county, the fifth In the Province of Pennsylvania created under the Froprle-taryship, will begin the celebration of the one hundred and fiftieth an niversary of its creation, with historical sermons in most of the churches of the county. The civic celebration will occur on the three following days. For nearly half a century after the acquisition of Pennsylvania by William Penn. the entire region west of the Susquehanna was unknown, except to a few Indian traders and other hardy adventurers. When Penn, soon after his arrival at Up-land in 1682, divided his vast grant from the King Into the three original counties of Philadelphia, Bucks and Chester, all of them were without definite boundaries. Of the three Chester was the greatest in extent. It comprised all the territory southwest of the Schuylkill except what is now a part of Philadelphia and the county of Montgomery. The limits of Chester county were greatly restricted in 1729, when the county of Lancaster was created. The dismemberment of Lancaster county began with the erection of York county in 174(1. It will thus be seen that the present county of York during the colonial period was within the Jurisdiction of Chester county 1682-172), and of Lancaster county, 1729-49. The early settlement of York county was retarded by Penn's- peculiar methods of extinguishing Indian titles, and by the boundary disputes with Lord Baltimore. Apart froit his grant from King Charles IL, Penn claimed the country west of the Susquehanna under a real or pretended purchase from Colonel Thomas Dougan, in 1696, while Lord Baltimore's pretensions, up to the fortieth degree of latitude, were based on the terms of the grant of the Province of Maryland, which was half a century earlier than the grant to Penn. The effect of these conflicting claims was to involve the Province of Pennsylvania In frequent bickerings and disputes with the Indians, on the one hand, and In actual war with the Maryland intruders, as the settlers who owned allegiance to Lord Baltimore were called. In consequence the Susquehanna became historic, and strange as it may appear, its history has never been truthfully told. To tell It in I its integrity Is the purpose of this monograph. I. The Indians. WHEN Governor Penn first settled this country," Lieutenant Governor Keith wrote to the Governor of New York in 1720. "he made It his chief care to cultivate a strict alliance and friendship with all the Indians, and condescended so far as to purchase their lands from them, but when he came to treat with the Indians settled upon the river Susquehanna, finding they accounted themselves a branch of t.e Five Nations, he prevailed upon Colonel Dougan, then Governor of New York, to treat with them on his behalf and to purchase from them all their claims of right to the lands on both sides of the Susquehanna, which Colonel Dougan did accordingly, and for a valuable consideration paid in sterling money. Colonel Dougan by good deeds transferred or conveyed his said right, purchased from the Five Nations, to Governor Penn and his heirs." Not a single assertion In this statement is true. There Is no reason to believe that the Mln-goes of the Susquehanna, as they were some " times called, accounted themselves of Iroquois stock. On the contrary, they were the descendants of the ancient Susquehannocks, the most warlike of all the Indians In Eastern Pennsylvania and Maryland in the seventeenth century. Captain John Smith met a hunting party of the Susqueliannock Indians at the head of Chesapeake Hay In 1608. Smith described thein as a race of giants. Speaking of their chief the redoubtable explorer said: "The calves of his legs were three-quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his limbs in so answerable to that proportion, that he seemed the goodliest mm I ever saw." Smith made a sketch of this giant that fully accords with his description. Although Captain Smith's account of the Rusquehannocks borders on the marvelous, later discoveries tend to confirm it. While the excavations were making for the bridge that spans Octorara, during the construction of the Columbia and Port Deposit Railroad, human skeletons were unearthed that Indicate that they belonged to men of extraordinary size. Similar bones were found at the Indian town and fort, a short distance below Washington borough. When the Swedes came to the Delaware and the English Catholics to Maryland, the Indians on the Susquehanna were classified as Huron-Iroquois. Their generic name was Andastes. They were probably descended from the ancient Mongove,' from whom the Five Nations may also have sprung, but as the Andastes were often at war with the Iroquois the kinship must have been very far out. Captain Smith obtained the name Susquehannocks, which he applied to them from the Tochwogbs, who were his Interpreters. These were probably Nnntlcokes. The Susequehannocks at the time of Smith's visit had six towns. The chief town was "two days higher up than our barge could pass for rocks." It may have been on the Chlqiiesalungo. below Marietta. The second town, Quodroque, twenty miles higher up, was probably at Middlerown; Uehoweg. still higher, up, on a western branch of the Susquehanna, must have -been on the Yellow Breeches, or Conodoguinnet. Teslnlgh. on an eastern branch of the river, Jt has Been assumed, was at Lebanon; and Attaock. on a western branch, sixteen miles away, at York. The last of the six towns, Cepawlg. was on the Patapsco. probably at Westminster, Md. None of these towns was In existence In the historic period. The Conestogns, who were the descendants of the ancient Susquehannocks. were sometimes called the Andastognes, but Mlngueseg was the name given them by the Swedes find Mlnguas by the Dutch. When the name Conestogas was first applied to them Is uncertain, but It Is preserved In western tradition as applicable to them before the grant to William Penn. , II. The Sasquahana Fort. There Is a remarkable cellar tinder an old etone house, occupied by Mr. John L. Detwiler. on Long Level, on the north side of the Susquehanna, In York county, that few persons know is there, and none, perhaps, why It Is there. This cellar Is what remains of the famous Sasquahana Fort that it was agreed between Lord Baltimore and William Penn, In 1680, should mark the boundary between the provinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania. This fort was on a hillside, just above the level that runs along the Susquehanna for several miles. A little to" the south Is a break in the hills that was originally called Canojohela valley, now corrupted Into Canadochly. This locality was the sce'ie of many of the conflicts between the Mary land and Pennsylvania settlers, 1732-7. a fact that gives additional Interest, to !hu discovery that Detwller's cellar is the ancient Indian for!. It has always been assumed that thin fort iwhlch is indicated on the early maps, was ft. defensive work belonging to the Susque- IN REVIEW FOR CENTURY AND A HALF PAST I tinnna TnitlaTia Tn tiat MU 1 WftllM hnvA i..iii.in. in H...I iv been a tjnere stockade, such as undoubtedly existed on the east side of the river. It was not an Indian fort in the sense that it occupied by Indians. Detwiler s cellar was part of a real fort a white man's fort. It Is a work of solid masonry, such as only white men could build. In appearance it is an underground archway, or casemate, with thick walls on the sides and at one of the ends. Entrance Ir had at the south end. where the wall is broken for that purpose. On the east side are two embrasures, and there Is one in the north end. These embrasures are high up in the Inside walls, hut on the outside they are above ground. What is seen on the outside appear to be mere slits in the wall. They might have been made to give a dim light in a prison cell. In a word, the cellar Is a bullet-proof and bomb-proof chamber that could not be suc cessfully assailed, but that would serve as a place of retreat for the garrison in case the fort proper, which was probably of wood, was carried by the enemy. Although the house of which the case mate was a part Is an old one,' possibly a hundred and fifty years old, it Is clear that the cellar Is much older. The house was built over this arched chamlier, and what had been the keep, or strongest part of the old "Sasouahann Indian Fort" became a ! cellar. There Is no other cellar like It th.it I know of anywhere! hut this dungeon of tne seventeenth century has made a very good cellar all through the nineteenth. When and by whom was this fort built? It is not my purpose to answer those ! questions, with citations of the proofs that would justify my conclusions. It may he said, however, that the Maryland records show that the period between 1661 and 1680 was one of constant bickerings and frequent negotiations with the Susquehanna Iudlans. The Susnuehannns claimed to he In fear of Irruptions of the Senecas, but the Maryland authorities suspected that the Susquehanna I and Renecas were In league against .he whites. This distrust of the Rusquehannns was such that a secure place of retreat was necessary for any force sent among them. In case they should prove treacherous. It must have been this reason, as much as for a defense against the Renecas, while ostensi bly protecting the Susquehannas, that the casemate under the "Sasquahana Indian Fort" wns built. The existence of the Susquehanna Fort In 1680. not as a mere Indian fort, but as the northern bulwark of the province of Maryland, Is a matter of history. When William Pnnn'a rtnttHnn J n lncrai-H in hie elll t lirl11 bomi(larv wna ia(, b(,foPP PrivT Council enpies were sent to the Duke of York's secretary and Lord Baltimore's agent, "that they may report how far the pretensions of Mr. Penn may consist with the boundaries of Maryland or witK. the duke's proprietary of New York." Baltimore's agent answered: "It is desired that Mr. Penn's grant of land shall be north of Susquehanna Fort, for said fort is the boundary of Maryland northward." It has always been claimed In behalf of Maryland that the Susquehanna Fort should be the bounds of Lord Baltimore's possessions. This fort was on or neat the fortieth degree of latitude. Both the "Susquehanna Indian Fort" and Detwller's cellar are on or near the fortieth parallel. This was the locality, also, of Cresaf's Fort and the scene of the border troubles between the two provinces, half a century after Penn's grant. In all its phases, from the time this unique subway was built by hands that ounnot now be positively identified until its discovery nearly two centuries later as the humble and prosaic cellar of a York county famu house. Its story Is the romance of two great American lordships a romance dimmed by years and forgetfulness and blurred by history. III. The Dougan Purchase. SOON AFTER his arrival in his province William Penn sent' two agents, William Haig and James Graham, to New York and Albany to obtain information in regard to the Susquehanna river and to acquire the lands on that stream. These lands were clnimed by the Onondagas and Cayugas as their own, the other lands belonging to the Iroquois confederacy, the Senecas, Oneidas and Mohawks having no interest in them. Their claim was based on the conquest of the Susquehanna Indians many years before. The presence of one of Penn's agents at Albany and the purpose of his coming caused great perturbation among the Hutch Indian traders, and the Magistrates lost no time In lodging a vigorous protest with Governor Dougan. This protest resulted In effective measures, and not only were the negotiations with Penn's agents defeated, through the Influence of a Cayuga chief named Oreonake, but a purchase was made in behalf of the province of New York. "It was of this Oreonake," Father Lam-bervllle Wrote to M. de la Barre in February, 1684. "that the English of Albany, formerly Orange, made use to prevent Sienr Penn purchasing the country of the Andastognes, who have been conquered by the Iroquois and the English of Meriiaude." The conference with Penn's agents was held September 25, 1683. The next day the Cayuga and Onondaga sachems made' proposals to transfer and convey the Susquehanna river, with the lands situated upon It, to the Governor of New York. In pursuance of a promise made in 167!). The offer wns accepted and the Indians were paid "a ha'f piece of Duffels, two blankets, two guns, three ketlles, four coats, flfty pounds of lead and live and twenty pounds of powder." Notwithstanding the failure of his agents Penn clung tenaciously to his purpose of buying the Susquehanna, and in April, 1684, he sent Thomas Lloyd and William Welch to Governor Dougan to ask bis consent to treat with the Indians. The request wns not granted, whereupon Mr. Lloyd complained of the unkind usages and sinister dealings of the people of Albany, and on Penn's he-half claimed some consideration for the loss of time and money In "bringing down the Indians." Dougan answered that In regard to the expense to which Penn had been put he had nothing to say, and "that they of Albany have susDition It Is only to get away their trade, and that Mr. Penn hath land already more than he can- people these many yenres." In August, 1684. the conveyance of the land on the Susquehanna to the New York Government was again confirmed by the Cayuga and Onondaga chiefs, lu the presence of Lord Howard of Effingham. Governor of Virginia, and Colonel Thomas Dougan, Governor of New York, and It was expressly stipulated "that Penn's people may not settle under the Susquehanna river." Lord Effingham was specially desired by the Indians "to take notice that Penn's people would hare bought the Susquehanna river by them, but they would not, but fastened It to the government of New York." Colonel Dougan ceased to be Governor of New York, In 1688, but the Governor and Council were still resisting Penn's efforts to make the Susquehanna purchase in 1691, charging him with "tempting the Indians to his province." Strenuous efforts were made to induce the king to defeat "the pretences of Mr. Penn to the Susquehanna river," and to prevent hint from exercising any authority over it, or the lands adjacent to it. In the face of these facts it was claimed that five years later, in 1696, Dougan sold the river to Penn for 100, and the alleged "deeds" have always been treated by Pennsylvania writers as valid conveyances. It was a question whether the deeds were genuine or whether Dougan sold what he never owned. , The first that was heard of the Dougan deeds was In Philadelphia, September 1700, when Widaagh and Andaggy-Junquagh, kings or sachems of the Susquehanna In- j dlans. executed a deed confirmatory of the alleged Indian sale to Dougan, the two chiefs" declaring they had seen the deed from Dougan to Penn. The next year Penn made a treaty with all the Indians living on the Susquehanna, In which there was a declaratory clause confirming all previous sales to Penn. These confirmations were by mere tenants at will, and had no binding force upon the Cayngas and Onondagas. When the Dougan deeds were finally put upon record in 1735 it was found that Colonel Dougan claimed by purchase or gift from the Seneca-Susquehanna Indians. There was no tribe thus designated, but if the Senecas were meant they were without title and could neither sell nor give to Dougan. Nothing was heard of the Dougan deeds to Penn for nearly twenty years after the rounner s last visit to ins province, out in 1720 James Logan was Informed by Captain Civility, the noted (Vmestoga chief, that the Five Nations, especially the Cayugas, were dissatisfied with the extensive English settlements on the Susquehanna, as they claimed the right to that country. Logan immediately asserted the validity of the Dougan deeds, claiming that the conveyance to Dougan was made In the presence of Lord Eflingham. This may have served Its purpose for the time, but considering the language addressed to Lord Effingham by the Cayugas and Onandagas In 1684 It was discreditable to Logan, to Penn and to Dougan. Lieutenant Governor Keith succeeded in obtaining the assent of the Five Nations to the proprietary claim to the lands east of the I lit- ii iijii it-m I ,t vim in i. Hit- in mi flint tn i lie Susquehanna, at Albany. In 1722, but the Indian title to the territory west of the river, of which York county was a part, was not extinguished until 17.36. 7vT Springettsburg Manor. IN. 1721 Governor Keith, with a cavalcade of horsemen, made an ostentatious visit to Conestoga. During this visit his attention was directed to settlements already made west of the Susquehanna. A year or two before John Griest, or Grist, with some other, squatters, had settled on Kreutz creek, nenr where the borough of Wrightsvllle now stantls. The Indians nt Conestoga complained of the Intrusion, and John Cartledge was directed to summon a poss'e and dispossess the intruders. Grist w as warned to quit, but not .ejected, whereupon the Indians destroyed some of his cattle. With "the hardihood of an Inured transgressor" he went to Philadelphia to complain of the Indians, but w-as sent to jail for bis contumacy. The settlement was broken up. What Keith thought entirely lnndmissable in Grist he had no hesitation In doing him self. In the following May he visited the west side of the Susquehanna, at what Is lease, and Pennsylvania holding them un-now Newberry, with the Surveyor General of i der the warrant of Squire Blunston. While the province, and directed a survey of 500 tns controversy wns on Cresap seized acres to be made for bis own use. This tract the plantation of John Hendricks, adjoining or a part of it was Immediately claimed by the present borongb of Wrlghtsvllle, nnd rump ryng. a siiversmnn or rniiaueipnia. as a Maryland grant. Syng was sent to jail for asserting a Maryland title, and Keith conceived the brilliant, idea of surveying 70,01k' acres On the west side of the river, adjacent to his "settlement," for Sprlngett Penn, the grandson, and, as the Governor believed, the heir of "the founder." This was the Inception of the second manor of Springettsburg. If the Dougan pnrchase of 1696 and the subsequent continuations were valid the consent of the Susquehanna Indians to the survey of the manor was unnecessary. But Keith was too fond of show to forego so favorable an opportunity for a council nt Conestoga. and a speech to the Indians full of sonorous sentences. The fun of these humorous productions, preserved In the Colon ial Records, has escaped the Pennsylvania historians, but this example of his oratory I is too exquisite in its fulsome complacency ; to require comment. The council was held June 15, 1722, and the oration was worthy of ' the orator. You say you love me," said the modest Sir ! William to his "Friends and Brothers." the Indians, "because 1 come from your father, William Penn, to follow his ways, and to fulfill all his kind promises to the Indians. Yon call me William Penn, and I am proud of the name you give inc. But If we have a true love for the memory of William Penn, I we must show It to his family nnd his chil dren, that are grown up to be men in England, and will soon come over to represent him here. The last time I was with you at Conestoga you showed mea parchment (treaty of 17(H), which you had received from William renn. containing many articles of friendship between hliu and you, and between his children nnd your children. You then told me he desired you to remember it well for three generations; but I hope you and your children will never forget it. That parchment fully declared your consent to William Penn's purchase and right to the lands on both sides of the Susquehanna. But I find that both yon and we are like to be disturbed by idle people from Maryland, and also by others who have presumed to survey lands on the banks of the Susquehanna, without any powers from William Penn sor bis children, to whom they belong, and without so much as asking your. consent. I am, therefore, now come to hold a council and consult with you how to prevent such unjust practices for the future. And hereby we will show our love and respect for the great William Penn's children, who Inherit their father's estate lu this country and have a just right to the hearty love and friendship of all the Indians, promised to them In many treaties. I have fully considered this thing; and If you approve my thoughts I will immediately cause to be taken up a large tract of land on the other side of the Susquehanna for the grandson of William Tenn, who Is now a man as tall as I am. For when the land Is marked with his name upon the trees It will keep off the Marylanders. and every other person whatsoever from coming to settle near you to disturb you. And he. bearing the same kind heart to the Indians that his grandfather did, will be glad to give you any part of his land for your own use and convenience; but if other people take it np they will make settlements upon It and then It will not be ! In his power to give It to you as you want It. . Consider then, my brothers, that I am now giving you an opportunity to speak your thoughts, lovingly nnd freely, unto this brave young man, William Penn's grandson; and I, whom you know to be your true friend, will take care to write down your words, and to send them to England to this gentleman, who will answer In kind anon; and so many hearts will lie made glad to see that the great William Penn still lives In his children to love and serve the Indians." The Indians were not eager to accede to Keith's proposition. "They very much approve what the Governor spoke, and like his counsel to them very much," said Tawenea, a chief, speaking for bis people, "but they are not w illing to discourse particularly on the business of land, lest the Five Nations may reproach them." They knew what that mennt, but they were chafing tinder their subjection to the New York Indians, especially the Cayugas, and as the Governor was going to Albany they trusted to hlin to settle the matter there. Keith had plnyed his hand and won, and he never troubled himself to keep faith with the people whose Interests he affected to have at heart. On the contrary, he misrepresented them to the Provincial Council as soon as he had obtained their reluctant consent to the survey. The Indians were "very much alarmed with the noise of an Intended survey from Maryland;" they "were exceedingly pleased" with his proposition, and "pressed to have It innnediately done;" and he then outlined a course of action that would have precipitated a conflict" between the two provinces. He ordered a comfwny of militia to be sent from Newcastle to Octorara to await his orders, and announced bis intention to run a boundary line from Octorarai to the rotomac. The Council declined to concern themselves with surveys of the Proprietaries' lands, and discouraged the hasty steps that the Governor proposed. A bribe of bread, salt ana rum that he asked for the Indians was refused. The manor was surveyed,' but the survey had no effect In nteventlng encroachments from Maryland, while it proved a source of evil to the province. It disquieted the Indians within a few years, causing the Sha-wanese to withdraw from the Susquehanna and throw their Influence with the French in the subsequent conflicts. The worst feature of this immense land Job was that it was designed as ja cover for a minor job In the Interest of Sir William Keith, Bart. Like most of the Jnanors of which It was one. It was conceited In perfidy and exe cuted in fraud, and the evils that were Its consequence lasted far into the nineteenth century. Cresap's War. W: HILE CAPTAIN THOMAS CRESAP has always been treated as Lord Baltimore's border hero by Maryland writers, the Pennsylvania historians have all painted him in very dark colors. He is described as a very good or a very bad man, according to the point of view. The truth, probably, was that he was a typical pioneer brave when the occasion required action, blustering when words were likely to be more effective than deeds, and tenacious of what he considered the territorial rights of Maryland. Cresap came to file west bank of the Rus quehannn early in 1732. He established a while some of his rela ferry at Blue Rock tions settled higher up on the west side of the river In Canoj ihela valley, now Cano- dochly. This valley was already occupied by James Patterson;, an Indian trader, as a rses, his extensive trade requiring hlin to keep a large stock of pack animals. Patterson had a plantation and mansion house on Ijhe east side of the Susquehanna, opposite Canodochly. It was determined, at the instigation of Cresap. to drive him away from Canojohela. To effect this his horses were stampeded and some of them were killed by Daniel and William - - - - -- -- ! Lowe, Cresap's nephews, and other young men, who had been promised Maryland grants If the Pennsylvanlans were kept from the west side of the river. Cresap and ratterson met after the stampede of the horses. Their Interview was a hot one. Colonel Patterson was a choleric old man. and Crenap a bold and defiant young fellow. Not only were Daniel and William Lowe arrested In the night, but John Lowe, their father, was taken from his bed and given a liearlng before Justice Blunston, who lived where Columbia nowr stands. Both Cresap and Patterson attended. John Love was discharged, hut the young men weie held for trial at Lancaster. Cresap objected on the ground that the Lowes were Maryland citizens. "I would have jfoi know," Patterson said, "that we hold thein prisoners of Pennsylvania." "If Lord Baltimore can not protect them In their rights and land." Cresap answered, "the Inhabitants of the west side of the river must appeal to the King." "You have no business with the King or the King with you," Patterson replied, "for Fenn Is your King." This was the beginning of "Cresap's war." There was a long controversy between the two provinces over the arrest of John i L.owes sons, .Maryland uemanning rneir re- began building a house there and erecting a float for a ferry. The workmen were ar rested and sent to Jail, and a.n attempt was made to arrest Cr'sap in his own house. Cresap resisted and Knnwles Daunt, of the Sheriff's posse, wa i killed. Cresap's fort, which was the old! casemate, now Detwller's cellar, over wbch he had built a cabin, was too strong for jtlie attacking party and he was not taken.! Some time later John Wright, Jr., and Joshua Mlnshall, living on the Springettsburg Manor by leave of the Penns, were seized by w-ay of reprisal and carried to Annapolis. These events occurred In 1734. In 1735 Cresap, who had under him by that time something very like a military company, marched to the wheat field of John Wright, with the intention of seizing Wright's crops, which had Just been reaped. He was met by suet an undaunted spirit by the Quaker pioneer that he stopped short of becoming a marauder and turned back. In September of the same year a party of Maryland "Intruders," who received their orders from Cresap, set upon the Shriff of Lancaster county, released some debtors he had In custody, and took him prisoner. The next year, In May, j"36, surveys were made on the stniigcttstturg .Manor ny a .uaryianu surveyor, under thp protection of Cresap, with an armed foree. Cresap said he had orders from Governor Oslo to survey all 'ho lands from the Susquehanna to the Codorus. The surveys of li36 embraced many tracts, some of which were already occupied nnd Improved under Pennsylvania grants. At this time there was a large German emlgra tlon across the Susquehanna Into what was soon to become York county. Some of the Ignorant Germans were induced to accept Maryland warrants for their laud, and those whorefused weredlspossessed. Although Cre sap had already seized the Patterson plan tatlon In the Canodochly Valley for his own use, he still coveted the plantation of John Hendricks at the mouth of Kreutz creek. It was claimed that the province of Mary land extended six miles higher np the river. There were rumors that Maryland Intended asserting Lord Baltimore's authority ovet the whole region by force, but nothing wns certainly known of this alleged design. In September young p founder of Chnmhif enjnmln Chambers, the rsburg. came from his plantation on the Conochengue, In the Cum berland Valley, to the Susquehanna on a visit to Colonel P itterson's family. The elder Patterson had died in 1735, but Cham bers made frequent visits to the house of the widow, his object being to woo her (laughter Sarah, lie had consequently a personal Interest In defeating the Maryland designs, as by driving the Intruders away the recovery of the Patterson plantation, occupied by Cresap, would be accomplished. Chambers determined to go us a spy Into Baltimore county to learn what preparations were making there. He found that a gen eral muster under Colonel Rigby had been ordered and that a strong force was to march to the plantations of Wright and Hendricks to capture and hold the territory claimed by Maryland. Having obtained the knowledge, he was eager to return and Inform the Magistrates of Lancaster county, but he was suspected and placed under arrest. By a bribe he Induced the militiaman In whose custody he was to allow him to escape. Making hls way to Wright's house, where he arrived ill the night, he learned there was to be a louse-raising in Donegal the next day. He nt a single stroke, the alarm among tl weut there and thus, was enabled to spread e settlers up and down Susquehanna. I the east side of the A large force rif hardy Scotch-Irish frontiersmen gatheri ed In the cove where Columbia now stands to await th The coming of the lift!- Maryland army. Marylanders arrived 11 on Sunday morning. marching to the music of drums and trumpets. The Pennsylvanians embarked In flat-boats to ero?s the river and give thein battle. The force of Colonel Rigby bad been much weakened by the refusal of many of the Maryland militia to take part in a movement In which they had uo personal Interest. Seeing that he was outnumbered and would certainly be beaten, Colonel Hall, who had received the command from Rigby, withdrew to Cresap's "fort." Cresap was furious and he evei went so far as to call Hall a coward, charging him with running away with an nrniel force from a few men crossing the river ir boats. He failed, how. ever, to Indue Hall and Rigby to continue their movement, and the Maryland force, which nad come with so much bravado, rap- idly melted away In November, 1 36, occurred what Is known as the Chester County Plot. This was a scheme of Cresap to Induce some Church of England people living In Chester county to accept the plantations of the German settlers, w lorn he claimed had revolted from Marylaid. If the Germans refused to sell at a romlnal price they were to be driven away. The plan was too chimerical to succeed,' mless supported by mil itary force, and this the Maryland authorities had not the nerve to provide. The whole thing fell to pieces and "Cresap's war" was practically at an end. For a long time it had been the ardent wish of Thomas Penn and the Pennsylvania authorities to arrest Cresap. As early as 1732 Blunston wrote that James Logan had said that he would be glad If Cresap could be taken. But Cresap was too wary and too well fortified to be easily captured. Finally It was determined, on the 23d of November, 1736, to take him by surprise in his own house the next morning. Robert Buchanan, the Sheriff of Lancaster county, attempted to spring the surprise, but Cresap. with six men, was found ready to defend his castle. HIseaptnre was at last effected by burning the house. He was carried to Philadelphia on the representations of the Lancaster county Magistrates and lodged In jail there. "Damn it, Ashton," he said on the journey, when within sight of the city, to one of his guard, a Quaker, "this Is one of the prettiest towns In Maryland. I have been a troublesome fellow, but by this last Job I have made a present of two provinces to the King. If they find themselves the better for it they will have to thank Cresap." VI. The Temporary Line. CRESAP'S WAR and the outrages attendant upon It were not so much due to the pestilent character of Thomas Cresap as to uncertain boundaries and the long disputes between the two proprietaries. After Cresap's capture It was determined that, to secure pence on the frontier, a temporary line should be established, which both provinces should be required to observe and respect. It was agreed In 1737 that the whole matter should be submitted to the Lords of Committee of Councils on Plantations. This agreement was approved by the King. The Lords of Committee made their report in 1738. and a royal order followed. Two commissioners were appointed by each province to run the line, with Benjamin Eastburn ns surveyor. The line east of the Susquehanna was duly surveyed early in 1739, to and across the river, where a hickory tree was marked as the place of beginning for the line westward Before the joint commission could proceed toward the Potomac. Colonel Levin Gale, one of the Maryland commissioners, received word that his son had died, that Ms daughter was very ill. and that his family was in great distress. He demanded an adjournment of the survey, but the Pennsylvania commissioners had anticipated his request, and asked instructions from the Governor and Council in that event. The Instructions had already reached them, nnd were to the effect that the siirvey must continue. The Maryland commissioners. Colonel Gale and Samuel Chamberlain, withdrew, while Lawrence Growden nnd Richard Peters, the Pennsylvania commissioners, with Surveyor Eastburn. ran tiiV line due west about eighty miles ti the Klttochtlnny Hills. This left the temporary line, as fa was the territory really In dispute wns concerned, without the sanction of Maryland, and the two provinces were as far from a settlement ns before. Many of the settlers, who had obtained Maryland warrants, preferred.the rule of Lord Baltimore to that of Penn's. and Insisted on maintaining their allegiance to the Maryland proprietary, under the royal order of 1738. It was owing to this anomaly that Dlgges' Choice became famous during the next decade. The Maryland settlers had a habit of giving peculiar names to their grants. Above or near the disputed boundary were plantations knows as Deserts of Arabia. Ellsha's Lot, Jones' Chance, Walton's Disappointment, Eagan's Design, Cromny's Intrusion, Carroll's Delight nnd Dlgges' Choice. In 1727 John Dlgges, described as a petty nobleman, obtained a warrant for 10.000 ncres of unoccupied lnnd, to be located within the jurisdiction of his Lordship, the Maryland proprietary. By the advice of Indian Tom, after whom Tom's creek s named, Dlgges had his lands surveyed partly within the present townships of Germany and Cone-wago. In Adams county. nd partly In Heidelberg township In York county. It Included what is now the liorough of Hanover. It fell four miles northward of the temporary line of 1739. In 1743 Dlgges endeavored to cure his defective title by means of a Pennsylvania patent, but without success. The Penns and their agents were always difficult subjects to deal with In the matter of doubt ful grants. Dlgges continued his effort s.liow-1 ever. In the meantime a number of Germans i settled on part of his claim about Conewago creek, some with warrants nnd some without. In this way the train was laid for a tragedy as noteworthy as the murder of Daunt, or the capture of Cresap with the killing of one of the defenders of Cresap's "fort." Two of the alleged trespassers on Dlgges' Choice were Nicholas Forney and Martin Ullery. Dlgges sued them for the trespass and destroying his timber, and had them arrested by the Sheriff of Baltimore county. They were rescued by Adam Forney, a son of Nicholas. Subsequently in February, 1747, Adam Forney was arrested at night In his own house by Maryland officers, armed with clubs, and carried off to Baltimore, charged with resisting the Sheriff. The legal question Involved was whether Forney was In the province of Pennsylvania at the time of his arrest. As it afterward appeared that the arrest was made within Dlgites' origlnnl survey, Adam Forney was left to shift for himself. The trouble with the settlers continued until 1752, when Dudley Dlgges, son of John, was killed by Martin Kltzuilller. bis son Jacob and other members of the Kitz-mlller family. The killing took place north of the temporary line, and Jacob Kltzuilller was Imprisoned at York Town, the county sent of the new county of York. Maryland clalmorl jurisdiction In the case and demanded the surrender of Kltzmlller. The claim was probably a sound one, for under the admitted construction of the royal order of 1738, although the killing took place north of the temporary line, the parly Mary land patent and survey to John Dlgges gave Maryland jurisdiction In the case. The claim was resisted, however, and the trials took place at York, where both Jacob Kltzmlller and his father were acquitted. The killing was not a wilful murder, for It occurred by the accidental discharge of a gun during a scuffle, occasioned by an attempt to arrest Martin Kltzmlller by Maryland officers. In the Maryland courts, however, both the Kitzmlllers would have been convicted on the ground that they were resisting the ofll- eers of the law. The quaint doctrine of Maryland jurisdic tion within the territorial limits of Penn sylvania resulted in making Hanover, In the days when It wns still McAllister's Town, fa mous as the Rogues' Retreat. Its rude Inhabitants and the ruder refugees who resorted to It to escape arrest acknowledged neither the judicial Jurisdiction of Maryland nor the territorial authority of Pennsylvania. As a result of this anomalous condition, York county refused to receive criminals from the Rogues' Retreat, and Maryland ceased to bother about them. Finally Richard McAl-liater, the founder of the town and afterwards a colonel In the revolution, assumed summary jurisdiction over the place, nnd ap plied it so rigorously to the rogues that they abandoned the retreat. . : ' VII. Erection of York County. ALTHOUGH the authorized settlement of the country west of the Susquehanna, outside of a few favored grants In Springettsburg Manor and elsewhere, only began after the Indian purchase of 1736, so great was the wave of emigration afterward that only a year or two elapsed before the Inhabitants of "Lancaster county west of the river" began to demand the erection of a new county. The first formal petition was presented In 1747. It was treated with scant courtesy. But It was renewed the next year with so much clamor that It was accorded a hearing. The arguments In favor of a new county were so strong as to be Irresistible, and the act passed the Assembly and received the sanction of Governor James Hamilton, August 29, 1749. The new county embrnced the territory west of the Susquehanna nnd to the southward and eastward of the South Mountain. It thus included all of what Is now Adams county. The dismemberment took place in 1800, so that Adams will ceieorate its cen- tennlal next year. The northwestern bound - ary was not definitely determined until after Cumberland was erected in 1750. At the time of Its formation York county had only 1.466 taxable, and the entire population did not exceed 6.000. At the close of the revolution th county had a population of 27.007. Of this number 17.007 were within the present limits of York county. There were, besides, 637 negro slaves. Besides the county flcers common to the other four counties at the time of Its formation, York county had a Chief Ranger. Thl3 novel functionary owed his existence to the fact that a large part of the county was proprietary manor land. It was the Chief Ranger's duty to prevent the destruction of the Penns' woods, and to seize for their use all unmarked cattle, horses and swiie found at large. George Stevenson filled nearly all the county offices, including that of Chief Ranger, from 179 until 1764. York county was without a court house until 1756, when the structure w-as completed that was used by the courts until 1840, a period of eighty-four years. Adjacent to it was a building called the State House. In this building were the county offices. In spite of its name the S'a.e House has less historic Interest than the first court house. Indeed, the latter almost rivals the old State House in Philadelphia in revolu'lonary associations. When the British army, under General Howe, drove the Congress from Philadelphia, it fled first to Lancaster and then to York. Its sessions were held In the York Court House from September. 1777, to June. 1778. and some of the most memorable measures of the revolutionary period were considered and adopted within its walls. It ought to have been preserved as one of the most sacred shrines of' the nation, but sixty years ago "le people of York nnd York county bad not yet learned how precious their historic court house really wns, as one of the landmarks of the revolution. Its destruction was especially wanton as it stood in the Centre Square, while a different site was chosen for the new Court House, which has been remodeled and' rebuilt within the last year. Equally unfortunate with the CourtHouse was the fate of the Court House bell. It was sent from England just before the revolution as a royal gift to St. John's C:nrch. Th ,!, .i .u i will was little respected In America. It was diverted from its Intended uses, f.d ir j stead of serving to rail the King's faithful i subjects to prayer. It rang out fhe da summons to the members of the rebel Congress to assemble to concert measures for the subversion of the King's authority. The hell was restored to St. John's Episcopal Church In 1840, but It has been recast nnd so lacks the sacred character of the cracked old "Liberty Bell" In the S'ate House in Philadelphia, which is an object of veneration for the whole American people. York county has had three county pr'sons. The first was an Insignificant structure of which there Is no detailed description. The second "county gaol," erected in 1769, was used until 1855. It was pulled down a few-years later. The erection of the present county prison was hegun In 1S54. The management of the county was very turbulent from the outset. Hance Hamilton, afterward distinguished In the Indian wars, was the first Sheriff. Richard McAllister became an opposing candidate for the office (n the edectlon of 1750. There was only one voting place for the whole enmity the unfinished inn of P.altzer Span- gler. in the town of York. The friends of the opposing candidates came to the polls on horseback, many of them armed. McAllister's supporters were nearly all Germans-Hamilton's Irish or Scotch-Irish. The canvnssing was done in two languages. I which In Itself was a cause of bitterness between the factions. The Germans greatly outnumbered the Scotch-Irish. Hamilton saw that he would be beaten If the election went on. He accordingly determined to use his authority ns Sheriff to adjourn It. giving the turbulent character of the assemblage as n reason. This gave great offense to the Germans and there was an affray. Hamilton's friends were driven across the Codorus. After tlint nil the votes cast were for Richard McAllister. Hamilton, however, refused to assist in counting the votes, and he was not only sustained by the Governor, but continued in office. By ins riot the McCleltan. The friends of MWlellan were called the "Wiillainltes." hut the supporters of t lie "Conradites" embraced the "Schley-elltes." tile "Uudislllites." the "Sherman-Ites," the "Gosslcrites," the "Milierltes." the "Canipbellltes," the "Tribe of Eli" and "John, the Lawyer." The first five of these clans were the adherents of prominent politi. cnl leaders Colonel Henry Schlegel, a mill Cfllonel Henry Schlegel. a mill- of the Revolution; Jacob Rudl- t.'iry colonel sill, Associate Judge of the county; Conrad Sherman, of Manheliu township, south of Hanover; Philip dossier, of Ilellam township, and Colonel Henry Miller, a distinguished officer of the Pennsylvania line. The "Campliellitcs" were the Scotch-Irish, ill the southeast end of the county, led by John C.niipbell.'and the "Tribe of Eli" were the Quakers under the leadership of Eli Lewis, the founder of Lewisberry. "John, the Law- i-er." was John Lukens, Just admitted to the t eotintv wasdenrlved of ts representatives In i the Assembly for the ensuing year. At the ,g"me theVait aide of subsequent elections scenes were enacted , ' on ,n(l aUace,.t to the that were almost fully as turbulent. '';'',;' of John Hendricks soon after- A spirited contest occurred In the election ' P ' ,'..!', established the first ferry for Sheriff of the county in 179. The two " Columbia. Although ennnliliites weri t nnrnil l.nnli nun 1 nnni ' ' York county bar. This coniblna tlon was too V1111.s i,',tcr that they made their first set--strong for the "Willlamltes." as we learn ! Yemeni In "The Barrens," In York county. from a chronicle of "The days when George was iresiuenr. even i.eorge tne ureal. VIII. York Totf n. OST of the original plot of the town 1 piot or ne town ,.i owned by the ,-eys were made by iprlctnries in 1,41. of lork was on la enns. and the snrv dlrection of the pro Twenty-three lots were taken up In November of that year. Each applicant was required to build on his lot a substantial dwelling house of the dimensions of sixteen feet square. Few of the lot owners were able to comply with the conditions, and In 1713 only eleven houses had been built. In 1749 there were sixty-three dwelling houses, each containing only one room, hut in 1754 there were two hundred and ten dwelling houses, three of which were built of brick and two of stone. Nearly all. If not all, the early Inhabitants of York Town were (ierninns, some of them the ancestors of families still prominent In uicmj nuiiiuimij. v"-tfiioiuunj i-m-t.uu-1 pr of ,ne couutv. 1 tie enny seiners ters lu the early records names that fie- wpTe Quakei-s. Two miles east of Lewls-quently occur In the uewipapers at the pres- bprrv vjs' fln nl(i Friends' meeting house, ent day, such as Blllmeyer, Spangler. Maul, J Brolin( whieh centres many of the historical I'.icneioerger. caniiu. m-inci i, onupe, noii- j del and Small. The streets retain their an- clcnt names, such as Duke, George and Phil adelphla. Almost from the year York became a town It had two annual fairs and two market days each week, but George Stevenson In 1764 was eager to "Stop the Germans from their beloved practice of buying and selling on Sundays, which I'm satisfied they continually do, tho' 'tis not easily detected." Similar complaints have been made within recent years. York became a borough In 1787 and celebrated Its centennial twelve years ago. Its first Chief Burgess was General Henry Mil ler, of Revolutionary fame. Its original I Town Council coutalned three eminent names James Smith, a signer of the Declaration of Independence; Michael Domlel, who led the first company from Pennsylvania to the League of Boston In 1775. and David Gelrr, a lieutenant In Captain Chambers' company, who reached Cambridge only a few days after Doudel's arrival there. Per- haps no other borough In the State can show a record like this, although many of them have eminent names lu the lists of their town officials. The first church In York a log structure-was built In 1744, under the pastoral care of the Rev. David Candler, whose charge extended from the Susquehanna to th? Potomac. This congregation was Lutheran. In 1749, according to Stevenson, there were two churches, one Lutherun and one Calvin-Ist. The Calvinlst Church was German Reformed, not Presbyterian. Bartholomew Maul was the first parish schoolmaster. He instructed the children and read sermons on Sunday In the absence of the pastor. The survival of Maul's type may be found In York in our day lu the person of the Rev, P. Anstadt. the successful printer and publisher. The first Reformed congregation was served by the Rev. Jacob LIschy, a Swiss preacher with Moravian tendencies. The first English or Episcopal Church wns or- ganlzed about 1755. St. John's Church was " built in 1766 or 1769. The Rev. Daniel Batwell, an Englishman, who was the rector at the beginning of the revolution, was ducked In the Codorus for refusing to stop praying for the king. The present site of St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church mil secured as early as 1750. There has always been a large Catholic population in York county. The Methodists obtained a foothold la York about 1781, but the first United Brethren Church was not built until 1840. The Baptists only began to assert denominational strength In 185". There have alway been many Mennonltes and German Baptists (Dnnkards) In the county, and there were a few Quakers from the outset. There are few sects or denominations that are without congregations and churches in the city and county. The first tavern in York was kept by Adam Miller. The second bonlfnce appears to have been Bnltzer Spangler. He was the ancestor of the Spangler family and a member of the first Town Council of York borough. Our ancestors were fond of their tipples. In 1765 York had eighteen licensed houses of entertainment. The city of York could manage to get along with that numr ber to-day. The York hotels have entertained many distinguished guests, including Lafayette and Charles Dickens. York was a post town under the colonial system. The first postmaster under the United States was Andrew Jbhnstgn, appointed February 16. 1790. The fire depart, ment dates back to 1772. when the Sun Fire Company was formed. The Pennsylvania Gazette was printed in York while the Congress held Its sessions there, but the first York newspaper was the Pennsylvania Chronicle and York Weekly Advertiser, which was not started until 1787. The Pennsylvania Herald and York General Advertiser appeared in 1789. Die York Gazette printed In the vernacular of many of the inhabitants of the city and county was established In 1796. York has had many newspapers printed In Pennsylvania German. York continued to be a borough for a century. Its history as a city Is too recent to require any attempt to recapitulate It at this time. Many episodes In the history of York would make entertaining reading. Among these are the riot of 1786, the alleged negro t "ii(m .11 .1 in uillil Hie ill" ii hi i-"'.i, mi: n'""" destructive ( odorus floods and the . . P ee by General Ear y In j liLZSl here, and equally Impossible to tell the story of the industrial progress of one of the most prosperous towns in this State. 1 IX. " The People of York County. NO COI'NTY in Pennsylvania none. Indeed, in the United States has a population so diversified and characteristic as the people east of the South Mountain and west of the Susquehanna. A large part of the Inhabitants is of German origin. With the exception of the Mennon- lies and Dmikards, who found their way across tne river, tne dermnns oi iors county are a distinct people from the early settlers of Lancaster. Their differences are to some extent racial, but more to the divergence In their habits of thought and of faith. Somebody has asked why the German county of Lancaster Is Republican while the German counties of Berks and York are Democratic. The solution will probably be found in the difference In the I Germans in each ot tnem wnen compare i with the ijernians oi l.am.isim. u- ima county pioneers were mostly from the Pala- tinnte. but thev were Lutherans and tie- formed, not Pietists. Some of them had been soldiers in Germany who had been Impoverished in the religious wars and came to America to better their fortunes. After the expulsion of John Grist and his neighlxirs no authorized st'ttlcnient was made In York county for a number of ! r.,,.a in ottemnt was made to effect a settlement at Canojohela by Michael Tanner, Edward Purnell and others under Maryland authority, hut they were expelled as Grist had been before them. M'hnt has been called the first authorized settlement was made in- John and .lames Hendricks, In 1729. Ti,v wore Scotch-Irish, but were active nart'lsans of the Penns, and It is probable '' B pe This ct- prp.vpntAn"r:T,v":' nims- plains way ... . ---- - the eountrv was not yet opeu ki.. a number 'of German immigrants was permitted to find homes on Kreutz creek about 1710 t the time of Cresap s war ine of Kreutz creek valley to the Codorus was settled by a considerable German population. Sa.miel I rtys was the first shoemaker, Valentine Hoyer the first tailor and I.-,...- i:,u-,iner the first blacksmith. An im- j personage in the new community j nn lmuvuli,al whose history has been preserved for posterity oniy iu me i...i,.j-.-, 'Die Dli'kle Sclnilnieister." About li34 Inhn and Martin Schultz built stone dwelling houses on Kreutz creek. One of these houses '.s still standing, the earliest of the earlv landmarks of York county In existence. Tile Scotch-Irish, who were numerous on the east side of the river in the townships of Donegal and Kerry, began to cross the Kitumehniinn into the Cumberland alley 1 .',;,11.iv s 173(1. but it was u number of I phis r"iim was the southeastern corner the countv. It was so cnui-n uh.iit ... had been denuded of timber by the Indians, who were accustomed to destroying the forests to facilitate the hunt for game. Some of the pioneers who helped to make this region bloom like the rose were Scotch Cov-ennnters. Andrew Flnley, who came from Antrim. Ireland, was called by his mt,M) n,he "King of the Barrens." Ho n-11 aec.sto.ned to lend money " ' when .rhe debts were ai IIIKU lllltn liquidated a quart of whisky wns exacted from each debtor. With this whisky Fin-ley was accustomed to make merry at his home, at what Is now Winterstowu. John Cooper, an Englishman, became an extensive land owner In Peuehblossom township as earlv as 1725. His descendants are still found In the township. In recent years many Welsh families have found homes In this corner of the county. The country about Lewisberry was called the "Red Lands." from the color of the soil. They were In the township of Newberry, which took' its name from "Keith's tract, i.,j von-horrv " This Is the northeastern aKs(M"int lnua of the Kllanas aney. me aescendants of many of these early Quaker settlers were soldiers in tne m-iumuou. Among them was one of whom the county has no occasion to be proud Colonel William Rankin, who commanded a regiment of York County Associators, nnd was on dutv in the neighborhood of Grny's Ferry while Philadelphia was occupied by the British In 1777- Colonel Rnnkln, like a number of other Revolutionary officers of high rank, besides Benedict Arnold, went over to Cos enemy. Northwest of Newberry Is the township of Falrvlew, originally a part of Newberry. It bns thirteen school districts, but no post office, and no place where liquor Is sold. Conewago and Manchester townships nrtj south of Newberry, the latter on the Susquehanna. The Scotch-Irish settled west of Falrvlew itownshlp, In Monaghan and Carroll, but the centre of the county, from the Susquehanna to the Adams county line. has always beeen almost wnolly t.erman. Some of the townships have distinctively German names, as Manheim and Heidel berg, but many of those with English names have a dominating "German population, as Dover, Manchester, Windsor and Warring, ton. Five townships are called after eminent men Penn, Washington, Carroll, Franklin and Jackson. The names of three townships were suggested by the landscape Falrvlew. Springfield nnd Spring Garden-while Chnnceford is said to have derived its name from a "chance ford," discovered by some of the pioneers. The name of Peach-bottom is obvious, but Fawn is not so clear. Ireland gave oniy one of the township names Monaghan and only one Is Indian one-wngo. The borough of Wrightsvllle claims the distinction of once having been Intended for the capital of the United States, but the claim Is without foundation. Long as this story is, it has only skimmed the surface of York county's history. G. O. Ssilhameb. f

Clipped from
  1. The Times,
  2. 27 Aug 1899, Sun,
  3. Page 16

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  • History of York Co 1899

    oldisbest – 27 Dec 2013

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