Discussion of the footprints from 1790 Kilauea eruption
K1LAUEA ONCE KILLED WHOLE ARMY OF 400 Footprints Of Soldiers Who Died In Eruption Of 1790 Found Four Years Ago. When over And postmark And closing hidden And the And read- You're Honolulu. June2fi. Ueortit eruptions of Kilaues, causing dratlt and injury to persons near the crater of the Hawaiian volcano, known for more than a century an "fame," recall a description by Prof. T. A. Jaggar, director of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, 01 tne eruption that destroyed, an army com posed of the enemies or King Kame-hameha in J790. Trofesjor Jangar's account is based on the Btory written in the lava by the feet of flying warriors. The "txnlosive eruption to wntcti Kilauea is now subject differs from ordinary eruptions in that the discharge of cas and rocks is not accompanied hy lava. Explosive eruptions churn up the crater, blow the surrounding lava into dut and create avalanches from the rock quarried out of the slopes ot the crater pit hy terri6c subterranean forces. Th rocks are hurled into the air con tinually and strewn over the countryside. Footprints Found 1 1920. Professor Jaegar stated that the me teorologist ' of the volcano observatory near the crater of Kilauea discoveml in 103) footprints in the lava desert on tne old crater of Kilauea. which proved on investigation to be embedded in patches of the fine ash of the 1790 eruption, scattered in hollows of the smooth lava of later flows. Many patches show plainly the prints of naked feet with separate toe marks indicated, from which the scientists are able to tell how the pedestrians stepped, the length of their stride and the direction of march. PrnfM.nr Jaecar discerned the foot prints of men, women and children, and some sharp-pointed markings made by the hoofs of pigs- "The people were walking, some away ffAm KilmiPA anil others toward it," said Professor Jaggar in his account of the early eruption. "There are different layers in the deposit, some sandy and others fine, wtnen were evmenuy muuuj at the time the footprints were made, for the whitish paste, hardened by drying, stands up in ridges at the s'des of the- footprints, showing exactly how the foot squashed into the mud. The hardening is partly chemical, for the air over Kilauea was full of acid gases which acted on the lime of the lava particles and thus preserved the footprints. Prlnti Are Preserved. "One of the first layers that (ell has foot impressions, and, although this later was buried later by other lava flows, they may be seen where heavy rains have eroded the recent layers and disclosed the, earlier flow containing the marks. This shows that some of the explosive 'ash' fell after the earlier markings were made, furnishing proof that the footprints are not modern, Dut were contemporaneous with the ash eruptions. "The ash of a volcano is simply rock flour, turned into mud by the heavy thunderstorms that accompany an eruption. At the same time hurricanes of wind blow the dry, red-hot ash over the ground and cause the death of all within reach. The greatest volcanic disasters to life have been due largely to asphyxiation and burning by incandescent dust and sand, although persons close to the volcano have been killed by falling tones. Force Of 400 Killed. "All the old accounts show that the warriors of King Kamehameha's enemy, King Kemia, were killed in this mnnner. A small fighting force of about 4(K) men was crossing the volcano in about November, 17!M. There seems to have been no ireat eruption on when they arrived, for the warriors amused themselves hurling rocks over the cliffs into the crater. This made the tiorirtess fete angry, and she sent up a cloud of black sand nnd rocks at night and chastised some of the disrespectful ones." Trofessor Jarrcer believes that on the j following day King Keoua made peace offerings to the goddess of tne voioano and probably human sacrifices, because he was noted for the cruel treatment ot his victims, and there was a temple dedicated to l'cle close by. The volcano continued its fury for two nights, and on the fourth day the king divided his army into three companies, intending to march to safety. On that morning an ertintion occurred, which Professor .fa g- ger heileves renKS wiin imir. oi rauvni's when Pompeii was destroyed, fiigatitif boulders hurtled into the air a thousand feet and total darkness covered the land, illuminated occasionally by vhid lightninf. caugnt By uiast. "One of the blasts caught the warriors of the middle party, traveling with wives, children and live stock, plastered them with gray ash and left them dead in lifelike imst ures." says Professor Jaggar. "Slome of the stragglers of the first party were also killed anil others were burned. professor Jaggar states that the ah plastered over much of the countrysid" about Kilauea is the substance that fell in 17W, In the shore region of the Kau desert on the islnnd of Hawaii is a sacrificial platform surrounded by pictures carved on the rock. 8me of the pictures look like rude maps of the crater, iis pits and lava ftW. Professor Jaguar belief" that much remains to le uncovered In this region, now set aside as the Kilauea section of the Hawaiian .National Park.