Flu vaccine headlines from Tampa Bay Times, 1946

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Flu vaccine headlines from Tampa Bay Times, 1946 - A in of of ' ( $ " y ' f 7?ree Out of Four...
A in of of ' ( $ " y ' f 7?ree Out of Four Saved From Influenza by Vaccine Good Against Two Types of Virus Today, 27 years after the medicine can do something about this disease. To the old, never too popular advice "Avoid crowds, keep yourself well fed and well rested to escape influenza" can now he added, "See your doctor for a shot of vaccine that gives 75 protection against two types of the disease." For the often-killing often-killing often-killing pneumonia and other infections that followed influenza in many of the 1918-19 1918-19 1918-19 cases, your doctor today can say, "It's only pneumonia," or "Only a strep infection," and get you on your feet again in a short time with a course of sulfa drug or penicillin treatment. The vaccine, getting its first big test in the 1945-4S 1945-4S 1945-4S epidemic, might not have done any good in 1918 even if it had been developed. developed. It is made from and effective effective against two types of influenza virus, A and B. What type caused the 1918 pandemic is. not known. At that time some scientists thought the cause was a virus but others believed it was one of a number of slightly larger germs, bacteria, among them one called Hemophilus influenzae. Two Type of Vlrtw More than a decade ago, however, however, Drs. W. Smith, C. H. An- An- drewes and P. Laldlaw, of the English National Institute for Medical Research, discovered influenza influenza A virus, one of the two against which a protective vaccine vaccine is now available. In 1940 two American scientists, Drs. T. P. Magill and Thomas Francis, Jr., independently discovered type B Influenza virus, the other one against which the protective vaccine vaccine is effective. Types A and B influenza viruses are believed to be the ones that cause epidemics of Influenza such as have occurred every few yean lince 1918. Other types probably exist but have not yet been identified. identified. Type A is thought to have caused the epidemics in the odd-numbered odd-numbered odd-numbered years since 1933. Type B occurred in the two even-numbered even-numbered even-numbered even-numbered years, 1936 and 1940. It got off its even-year even-year even-year cycle, however, however, causing a number of outbreaks outbreaks in Army ca.ps in the spring of 1945 and a sizable nation-wide nation-wide nation-wide epidemic in the winter winter of 1945-48. 1945-48. 1945-48. Efforts to develop a vaccine against influenza have been continuing continuing ever since the discovery of the A virus in 1933. In that same year, Prof. E. W. Goodpasture Goodpasture and associates, Drs. G. J. Buddingh and A. M. Woodruff, of Vanderbilt University, announced they had successfully vaccinated 11 persons against smallpox with a vaccine made from smallpox virus grnwn on fertile hen eggs. Daddy of the Vaccines You may wonder what smallpox smallpox has to do with influenza. The smallpox vaccine, however, was in a way the Daddy of the new vaccines against influenza. tvDhus fever, yellow fever and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Typhus, 'flu, yellow fever, and smallpox are caused by germs of the virus class. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by rickettsia, a different type of disease germ but one which is closer to the viruses than to the bacteria such as streptococci, streptococci, staphylococci and diphtheria bacilli. Viruses, unlike the larger bacteria, cannot be cultivated outside outside of living susceptible cells. This makes the study of them and ,aeveiopment of vaccines to pro-I pro-I pro-I tect against them much more dif I q I By JANE STAFFORD Science Service Medical Wrifer ffreat influenza pandemic at the ficult, since it requires the use of living animals instead of chemical chemical culture media. When Dr. Laidlaw and associates associates succeeded in isolating influenza influenza A virus, they immediately started to try to develop a vaccine vaccine from it. First they injected ferrets with influenza virus from human patients. Then vims-containing vims-containing vims-containing material from the ferrets ferrets was injected into horses. Blood serum from these hyper-immunized hyper-immunized hyper-immunized horses was then used as a vaccine for tests on laboratory laboratory mice. The vaccine did succeed succeed in protecting tjie mice against influenza virus. Early Stages The discovery that viruses could be grown on the chick embryo in fertile hen eggs gave scientists a powerful weapon for the war on virus diseases. A early as 1939 Prof. Goodpasture predicted that a vaccine for influenza and solution solution of other virus disease problems problems would come from this discovery. discovery. In fact, an Australian scientist, Dr. F. M. Burnet, had already taken the first steps in that direction. He had cultivated influenza virus on successive chick embryos until it lost its disease-producing disease-producing disease-producing power to such an extent that it did not cause sickness when dropped into the nose. At the same time, it increased the level of the body's own flu-flghting flu-flghting flu-flghting forces, called antibodies, in about one-half one-half one-half of those tested. Efforts to develop a satisfactory influenza vaccine, continued by many scientists over the years since 1933, culminated, in 1943, with trials by the Army's Commission Commission on Influenza of a concen U-f" U-f" U-f" , - Flying Fish Glide Above Water, Don't Flap Vings Like Birds to Keep in Air By Science Service Flying fish more nearly approach airplanes in their flight than any other animal. Instead of flapping their fins like the birds' wings, they simply glide through the air, Dr. G. S. Carter of Cambridge University reports in the British journal, journal, Endeavor. At least four types of fish fly or glide more or less ex pertly, Dr. Carter states. But by- by- far the most easily observed and the most adept at flight are the marine Exocoetidae frequently seen from the deck of a ship. These streamlined fish are much like a mackerel in shape. The fish's tail is V-shaped, V-shaped, V-shaped, as is common among fishes, but the lower arm of the V is almost half again as long as the upper. This type of tail plays an essential part in flight. The paired fins, which form the "wings," are about two-thirds two-thirds two-thirds as long as the body. In swimming they are held close against the body. Swimming at 15 to 20 miles an hour, the fish is almost exactly horizontal to the water as it emerges. The fish expands the front or pectoral fins, the pelvic fins still being closed, leaving the tail less supported than the head. This causes the body to make a 15 degree angle with the surface, the tip of the large lobe of the tail remaining in the water. a close of the first World War, trated inactivated vaccine prepared prepared from the virus of Influenza types A and B. Found 75 Effective About 12,500 men in nine groups of Army Specialized Training Training Program units stationed in different parts of the United States were the human guinea pigs for this trial. Half the men in each group were vaccinated, the other half remaining unvaccinated for comparison. When influenza broke out that year, the Army had a good opportunity to evaluate the protective value of the new vaccine. vaccine. Whereas 2.22 of the vaccinated vaccinated came down with 'flu, almost almost three times as many, 7.11, of the unvaccinated had influenza. The vaccine was therefore judged to be 75 effective, and to reduce reduce the severity of the illness in those who were not completely protected. Memories of the frightful influenza influenza toll in Army camps during the 1918 pandemic haunted the Army's medical department all through World War I!. When outbreaks of influenza began occurring occurring in Army camps in the spring of 1945, suggesting that a big epidemic might be brewing for the following fall and winter, it was decided to take no chances on an unprotected Army. Orderi were given for vaccination of all Army personnel in October and November. Results Important to All The results of this mass vaccination vaccination procedure may show whether all of us will be justified in getting vaccinated against 'flu each fall. Disinfecting the air in public buildings and even homes with The fish "taxies" along the sur face of the water for a half-second half-second half-second or so, vibrating its tail actively in the water so that it makes about 50 beats a second. The vibrating tail increases the speed until the fish is going about 40 miles an hour. Then the pelvic fins are also expanded, and the tail is lifted from the water. In this position the fish glides for 120 or 150 feet, keeping a foot or so above the water. When flying speed is lost, either the fish falls back directly into the water, or the rear fins are closed, the tail lowered, and speed regained by vibrating the tail in the water. A further glide then follows. Although the glide usually lasts for about three seconds, glides of 10 and even 13 seconds have been recorded by good observers, Dr. Carter states. The fish have been seen to glide 300 feet or more. (Copyright, 1949, Science Sercire) t -'"7 -'"7 " ; ' " 1 1 . ; IV ? " i N -i.v. -i.v. 1 ''j-.W ''j-.W ''j-.W (5 v - v 7 : V- V- Happy that something can now be done about Influenza which killed so many young soldiers durinr the first World War, MaJ.-Gen. MaJ.-Gen. MaJ.-Gen. Norman T. Kirk, Surreon General of the Army (top right), receive! his "shot" of the vaccine against Types A and B influenza which he ordered given to all Army personnel for their protection. The vaccine vaccine is made by growing influenza viruses in fertile ben's eggs, concentrating concentrating It and treating it with formaldehyde to remove its disease-causing disease-causing disease-causing disease-causing power. At top left workers in the laboratories of Sharp and Dohme, Inc., are scissoring off the shells of eggs In which the virus has been growing. The bottom view shows a Pitman-Moore Pitman-Moore Pitman-Moore Co. laboratory technician removing the virus-laden virus-laden virus-laden fluids from partially incubated eggs by suction. These firms and Lederle, Squibb, Lilly and Parke-Davis Parke-Davis Parke-Davis manufactured vaccine for the Army and are now producing It for civilian use. ultraviolet light or with invisible mists of germ-killing germ-killing germ-killing chemicals may be added to vaccination as a means of protection against influenza. influenza. While going to the doctor for a "shot" of vaccine would be simpler, the air disinfection method method has the advantage of giving protection against other diseases than influenza. Still needed in the almost Thirty Years War against influ enza is a chemical remedy like the sulfa drugs or an antiobiotic like penicillin for treatment of Getting to Relief Maps in Rubber, Metal Give Life to History, Geography, Latin By DOROTHY SMITH Science Service Staff Writer Teaching of geography may be three dimensional if the skills of war are transferred to the classroom. No longer must the student struggle to understand the cluttered details details of time-faded time-faded time-faded wall maps. Instead, he will see the world as though from a stratosphere plane its rivers and towns, mountains and roads,, all before him in clear relief. He will be studying with models models for maps, models secretly developed developed during the war to aid every type of military operation made by the Allies. When Sicily, Italy, France and the South Pacific Pacific islands were invaded, small and large scale models served as guides. The chiefs of staff saw in perfect detail the coast of Franca upon the planning-room planning-room planning-room walls, pilots and radar navigators viewed films of models to simulate simulate their bombing runs, amphibious amphibious and infantry units studied large-scale large-scale large-scale models of areas which would be their beachheads. Three-DImensional Three-DImensional Three-DImensional Mapa Topographic models that saw distinguished service in World War II will now be available to geographers who wish to illustrate illustrate their subject in three dimensions. dimensions. The details of mountains and plains previously unnoticed by students will be readily remembered remembered when the flat surfaces of maps are lifted up in accurate and detailed relief. Especially helpful will be small-scale small-scale small-scale topographic models similar to those employed for operational planning by Gen. George C. Marshall Marshall and his staff. The efforts and skills that went into the preparation of models on which could be plotted the actual campaigns campaigns may now be turned to wider educational fields. New methods introduced during the war will permit maps of any area on the globe to be reproduced in quantity. Shadow painting, the cutting of contours in reverse, invention of r.ew devices for patients. If the virus of the 1918 pandemic is ever again loosed on the world, the present vaccine probably would not be effective. The vaccine is specific for only two known influenza viruses. Sulfa drugs and penicillin and streptomycin, on the other hand, are effective against various strains or types of streptococci. A remedy effective in one influenza virus type might therefore be expected expected to remedy infection with any type of 'flu virus. (Copyright, 1946, Science Service) Know Faraway transfer of material from flat maps to relief models, and the use of new model substances have revolutionized the science of three-dJmensional three-dJmensional three-dJmensional map making. Magnetic models possessing absolute absolute scale accuracy are the latest achievement. First con 4 vv. : Small modela and symbols may oft this magnetic terrain model. used by MaJ. Wallsee W. Atwood. development, can be rolUrf w vU it of a up of the off as not to the suspended you 100 one the ited in symbols to his be Jr.,

Clipped from
  1. Tampa Bay Times,
  2. 20 Jan 1946, Sun,
  3. Other Editions,
  4. Page 34

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  • Flu vaccine headlines from Tampa Bay Times, 1946

    staff_reporter – 17 Feb 2018

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