Coal - 13. October 1893

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Coal - 13. October 1893 - IHYCOALIS To Save a Banlrit Corporation...
IHYCOALIS To Save a Banlrit Corporation .froniCollanse. FACTS TO PONDER OVER, Up to 1871 Miners Were Prosperous and Coal Was Cheap. THEN CAME ILLEGAL COMBINES Between the Miners of Coal and Those Whoso Business Was to Carry It. WHAT ABOUT THE ANTI-TRUST LAW? apparently Innocent measure gave extraordinary powers to Heading. One Senator Indignantly protested that "It the State of Pennsylvania desired to give the Reading road p'Jti.'o'xnlon of all tho coal lands In the State and the right to dictate the price at which coal should be Hold, they should pass th'.- bill." The Legislature was In those days, as during the Uoss Quay regime, a body containing a large proportion of corrupt or easily InliueiiCL'd members, and despite the opposition of far-seeing Senators and Representatives, the bill was crowded through ami beeam>? a law. The Lichlgh Valley road speedily carried a bill through the Legislature which Incorporated tho Green Valley Coal 'Company, a Luhlgb appendage. The Lchlgh Coal and Navigation Company, another Asa Packer concern, already held coal fields, nnd thus the !-'>high Valley Hallway launched Into the mining business. As soon ns Franklin U. Oowen got his Laurel Hun bill through, be altered the name to that of the Philadelphia and Heading Iron and Coal Company. The Heading Kiillriiad iinnonni'vd Ksclf ever before, 'the cost of machinery used at the mines has lessened, more power can bo cheaply applied, water Is kept out of the mlm'S easily, and coal that formerly went to tho waste heap is now utilized for fuel. The wages of the miners are smaller and the facilities for handling lire vastly greater. A few years ngo coal could be transported to Philadelphia over the canal, I'n'rrn Port C'arl.-jn. in th 1 .' Lchlgh region, for 15 cents a ton. Competent authorities state that coal can now bf got out at most of the mines and delivered in car.s at jl.Bl a long ton. In ISSii It was $1.11. This gives a profit. The transportation to tide water ought not cost liver IK cents a ton to Heading, which uses waste coal largely on its loonmo- tlvi-'s us fuel. One dollar n ton would pay a goof] prollt to the transportation Companies for coal hauled to New York and all costs of handling paid. At present tin? rate Is $1.1)0 a ton to 1'hlla'lel- phla. Two humlrei! and fifty tons is not an extraordinary load, and a locomotive, burning coal that costs next to nothing, and a train crew of live or s!:: Inen do the work required. Ho long as thu eo:il- ean-ler Is iietually the cr>;il mine and as long an tbe peonio submit to the 1H72 was 71), Navigation HUH aucijulred by Heading 1,'KM, and tbe Two other responsible for all Its oblbjfutlona; In other words, Indorsed thu Com ami lion r,jin- , .— ._.... pany'n paper. The number of acres W'ron£ the nbiiae of hlgl) prices will con- f coal liinilH accijulrcd by Heading in ! tlniic. Five railway corporations (six If the Pennsylvania HnHway Is Included) possess almost thu entire 50(1 miuarr: miles of anthracite lands. It I.* a lu.;ioles;; undertaking to restore r.iidlnt' Hallway and Its dependencies to Fdvencv without including in every scheme of lecrsanlzatlon continued extortion from consumers of eual. The lar^e sums wrested every year from consumers are Inadequate to jmy tiie li.vd charge::. There have been so many ruscalB fattening oh the property—com- Lehlgh Coal and Cumpany obtained iO.iwl common carriers, the Uula- waru and Hudson Canal Cumpany, under tho Biih-corporalu title ol' tho Delaware and Hudson Coal Company, and the Delaware, Lnckawanua ami Western Hailway, secured about twenty thousand arrcs each. Oowen paid for the coal lands taken by Heading in bonds, giving enormouB prices In ninny Instance!!, anil loaded the White nah coal ot the size used in stoves und ranges la now sold ut $5.70 a ton, short weight at that. The free- burning red aali coal, highly appreciated by those who wish u hot lire quickly kindled, Its sold ut J0.23 a ton. Tho greater portion of tho people of Xc\v York und Urooklyn do not lay in a supply of fuel for the winter. Inateu'J, they purchase- In comparatively small <uiun- tltlcs. It may be suto to state that U nc half the population of New Ym'lt havi to buy coal In fiuuuttflos of one ton or less; hence 11 Is not In their power to take, iidvuntuiso of tho lower summer rates. Notwithstanding the increase of Oct. 1, Consumers will be obliged lo face unother raise which may come on *>'ov. 1, sooner if the weather Is cold. The "wholesale sales nKcnts" lixcd tho Ill-Ices of coal that tire to previill thu coming winter, und 1-utullern are obliged to submit. With the selllnii prico of conl tuken by thu ton at the storumi yards at JG a ton, tin? yrimllng extortion that will bu inlllctcd upon the musses of the people who buy coul of tlio grocers and peddlers by the bushel uuU by the hodt'ul may be easily conjectured. At Christmas llnm the woman who eonds out for a hod of fuel will pay ut the rate of 115 or $lti n ton, according to thu rapacity of the seller. As a writer 1ms described It, " who called coals 'black diuinond.s'' must have lived In a tenement-house on thu cast side." The retailer buys Ills coal ut,' say, 54.75. He Hulls It to the small-quantities dealer at J.-J.75. The grocer or the peddler Bells by measure, -suy 15 cents or 20 cents a Jnilt bushel. The estimate Is on u, basis of eighty half bushels to thu ton. 'At 15 cents a hnlf buvhel, the price puld by the. purchaser Is ut the rate of (12 a ton. Thu cause of ihu high price of coal at tho outset Is yluln. Tne retailer will get all he can under any circumstances, but lie Is ever ready with tho iirguineiu that the upward tendency of the whole- Balers IB the cause of retntl high prices. Ihe wholesaler IB the creature of the sales agents. HO far us the price of coal IB concerned. The sales agents otiuy the ulctum ot the «U great railway corporations, tholr employers, who are the nb- Boluto musters ot : thu anthracite coal product of tbe United SUue.i. THE CONSUMERS PAY TIUUUTK. It Is tho absorption by the rull- roadH ot tho coal mlnlntt business, In addition .to their ICKltlrnuleTfmiptlpnsj'uS carriers. ,...triut. ImsHxl-.' to ithe <-xl»*i e ' high prices of coal. The consumers pay tribute to tho coal road.i. \Vlig wield a power as arbitrary an that possessed by a mediaeval tyrant. Tho entire comlitlons of mining, transporting and sellliig coal have been revolutionized. The miners have been ground down Into the mire of hopeless slavery, and the public pays tribute to their musters, the coal mutr- nuleu. . ; Up to 1S71 there was prosperity among the mlnero and their dependents In .thu anthracite region of Pennsylvania. Wages were good. As high no M cents •was paid for cutting out lifty feet (cubic) of coal. Tho mun saved money. There was a better class of workers, for tho reason that they were attracted by the satisfactory pay; and the K«n- erally untamed hordes from Eastern Europe had not been Introduced. Children attended school Instead of passing their days In grimy toll picking elate from the breakers. Over-production was not the excuse of operators lor arbitrarily shutting down work, nud colllurlep stopped only for repairs or from stress of weather.. 'I'lie miners wore as contented as workliiKiucn aru in Kenernl, Thu nilne-ownera obtained good returns from their Investments, and the feeling which existed between them and thulr employees was not characterized by tha animosities which slncu have been engendered. The change In the comparatively happy condition of the anthracite region IB duo lo tile greed of a great corporation, to the ambition of a railway manoKOr and to tho rapacity of certain llniinclom. The. policy Inaugurated by the Heading 'Hallway has led to tho oppression of tho miners, to the IncreasS in the price, of coal, to the limitation ot tho hours or labor and to the reduction to tho starvation point of tho wages . paid tha slaves of the coal lleldfl. The Individual operator, bris bucn Almost driven from buetnoaa'. Tho children of the miners rarely attend school! The women nre oftenor In rugs than otherwise; -luxuries are" nearly unknown. iSverythtng which cheers and encourages Is debarrl'd siivu tho temporary iind ultimately blighting relief dm'lvud. from cheap liquors. UncotUh, disorderly Slavs have largely taken tho place of tho trained Welsh und Irish mlncr>, and the habits of the lower peasantry of Poland and of Upper Hungary, havu been Implanted throughout Bchuylklll County and the contiguous mining districts. Tho cause of tho change In the mining system was a. combination of Interests—the union of. the mlne-owners anfl tho transportation peorilo. In no other Instance has the effect of th combination of capital been attended b; such bllghtlne results to mankind,as the Reading consolidation movement.. ' ' I'revious to 1870 tho conditions were not such us were favorable to tho consummation of n. union between trio coal- land owners and tl)0 carriers. Tho -Reiul- company with a debt of over $65.000,000. This was done through the sanction of the McCalmonts, Scotch-Irishmen, who acquired a grip on the railroad. It Is deemed by ilnaiiciors to be the monumental mistake, from a llnanclcrjnc standpoint, on (iowun's part that he did not pay in stock Instead of bonds. The Block wns n 10 per cunt, dividend payer, and the McCalinontH and Oowen expected that it would continue so. The esteemed value of the coal lands was $1,000 an ncrc on tho uveraire.. PUTTING ON TI1I3 SCREWS. The next step to create a monopoly was to secure the mines of Individual operators, Koine sold OIK. Others who refun-d were mude to fool the dimmed condition of affiUrrt by tho railway octopus. Tolls were raised and the supply ol' coal car:; always ran short Just at tho time when large shipments were desired by the nilne-owilifi'H. Tho Heading Coal anrl Iron company made tho purehaso:i nnd gave no niori|;ages; its smaller rival, the Lehlgh Valley Coal Company, did I ho Fame kind of buslnesH. The Individual operators were generally obliged to surrender, and the railway monopolists got possession of all the undeveloped coal lands and most of tbe mines, by pur- cbuso or lease, In the central coal region. At tho present time It Is estimated that the value of thG conl binds held by the Reading Interests amounts to £jlti,- OOO.OOii. To-day the coal railways, no culled, bold 'M per cent, of the anthracite coal Holds. • Cioweu' llrst suggested a combination between the Readlm; and the 'IvehlKh Valley and was Instrumental In creating the union of corporate interests In the unthraclte producing nnd. carrying business. The llrst restriction of mining was thus accumpllsbcii. The plan w;is to alluw a llxed percentage, of coal ruined 10 each coal railway',' each colliery •in turn being given a quota lo lie mlncM. In tills manlier the miners wf;rc ground, as It were, between two inillRtonen, and they suffered for llio ncceusnrlus of cx- Isti nee. ' ; . • The cnuso of the breaking up of this first coal combination was becautlfc them were jealousies among the coal roads, tho Reading people being credited with stealing more than their share of the business. Tho comparatively few're- Ho missions, fees, hush money, reorganization expenses, bribes, political expenses ami what not, ;n addition to the legulnr Interest charges on the everlasting systems of bonds and" debentures— that a leliclt Is lnevi'.;iblc. In -Inly of this year the deficit of the railroad and its leased lines lor cliilu months was ?^^,!i:;ri.:ti;. The deficit of the coal and Iron company for Ihe snme period was $7ill,0;5H.Sd, giving n total deficit of $l.-,-Vi74.17. This dellrlcMcy. if maintained during tlu. remaining four months of the 1 year, would be In exet-ss of $I.MHI,<K/J. Tim hopelessness of ihe In- deblcilnes'i Is siagscrlng. and, on tho ground of public policy alone, tlif con- sumhn; pulOle < ur;m not be? compelled to pay out money lo alii the bankrupt corporation in Its futile struggle:-'. "SIOLL, THK WHOLE THING OUT." A former ollielal of Heading— an honest man among a set of sharpers- -when asked by tho writer what Is tho remrdy for Rending evils, replied: "The Sheriff. Hell ihe whole thins out and begin afresh!" Thu bonded Indrbtrduess of Itendlng Is in excess of WlO.ouo.ouo. It HID i-uilre propertied controlled by the rorponilion were sold nut and a fresh start made tho necessity for grinding th? consuming public and Us own employees would be NO John little tho thut the lii over It self out thftt lUrfc |.tided. The Internets of public policy should Intervene Just as ilurlug the last j ,, m cleared Ireland of an Immense amount of hopeless hv.lobtedneKS. lix-Scnrilor George F. lidinnnds :uig- gcstcd UK a remedy the seizure ol Heading coal shipped across tbe limits of Pennsylvania. Said ux-fienator Kdmunds: "If Philadelphia nnd Heading lias combined with another company for tho purpose of controlling either Die price or the output of liny commodity, it is amenable to ' the. Antl-Truut law, and Us product Is. liable to seizure, while tbe principals are liable to arrest and " s Is. a constitutional lawyer of high standing, and bis long association with thu .ludlemry Committee nf thu Senate as its Chairman lends especial weight to his utterances. Continued Mr. lOdmiinfls: "The 'law is constitutional. It was passed by both houses of Congress unan- niously, not until after the most search Imprisonment." Kx-Semiior Wdmunds malnlng' private oner'itors wero dlss-itls '»« ! ""' exhaustive Investigation. Kvery 1 ' ' » " '"" " OB l bese heir business was hurt, the restriction on tin; output. A regular trade had been developed and business was arbitrarily disarranged by tho limi- ng Hallway held n, small quantity of .nd, and It devoted Itself to tho luKltl- mte business of a railway, which la to »t on n nnrnmon carrier^ The Heading paid Its stockholders. divi- [•poratlon ndfl of 10 dends of id per cent annually, and Ha affairs, under the management of President Charles Smith, were as prosperous, •with the certainty of continuing so, as those of any'other railway In the land. Coal was transported to tldo watei from Boliuyllvill Comity cheaply, ownit. ,<*o the downward grade, Spur tracks on- itered the premises of the numerous • properties of-Individual operators. Thora was natural competition between the • railway* of the coal region, tho Beadlns s and -the,' Lehltfh Valley, as woll as •«•- LehlKh NdVlmntlon Company, with i MBU ' " ' era. ift ol goo3 service to the mine-own' ,,., 'fho story at ''no spara on,™ 1 wai never hoard, and a inlne operator, could •• - ! ---'••-'- nrotH with the cer ship his c.odl fit a pro talnty. of ni-ornpt dell' •ftord ta pay fair wages, ana cno minei as protected by the existing oompetl on. A single operator oouiq not afforc lila help, and combination wai ' - ir one railway Irioreasec in charges, ita rival QOUU ot the situation and take Impracticable.'-If ,ltn trunaportotlon , talio udvantutfe ol the buBtnesi. JTraiittlln 'B; Go wen. who -_ "'resident Bmlth. at the head of th rporatlgn. oonoeiyed the plan nilnes and. coal lands, and tle, ot an aot to Incorporat ... '—' tation • of mining ordered, by. tho railway omcials to,suit the exigencies nf their business. ;ri\o smaller «uUbracltii coal carriers—the Pennsylvania lUill- road and tlio Delaware antl Hiiflsou Company—contributed • tn tho dissatls- facllon and the • 'combination • was dls- rufiied; '.• ••»'•';•. • •' •TI1K ?JI')XT MDVB.' , Tbe next Gowcn-Roadbig move WHS to hoop up-tHe union with the Lchlgh Valley peapie, and her essayed to steal its much of th<i- bftAlncs.s of the other roads an bo could. Deficiencies in Income he proposed to equalize by grinding down still lower tho wages of the slaves' of the mines. There wan a cold-bloodedness In the miHhoils of this unscrupulous man which may bo described an diabolical. In Us nature. The enormous ~>H"-'• ^>Mc-s of coal lands demanded heavy 'ni'Vest p.iiynienis, and ho had already verlaxed the earning capacity of the ormerly profitable Heading Rnllrnad. "here is a limitation to dividend-paying vhen tbe flx'cd interest charges amount o seven or eight millions a year. The miners met tin: pressure on them y forming a strong organization. It .•as only by combination of the coal-car- ylng Interests that Oowen could coii- rnl tha miners and grind .them lower nil lower In the scale of comfort and rosperlty. lleforo- tbe \allway union vus formed the miners went from mine mine, securing work at tbe locality vhere they could do' the best. Three /ears after Heading commented'fo inlne oal and to regulate the output fjowen commenced to .Import Slav laborers, loon lie overcrowded the mining regions vltli these cheap foreigners/and miners vere forced by starvation to week work it any price they could obtain for their abor. The competition which, was cre- ited in the struggle for baro existence n tho coal regions led to a reduction ot wages, and Heading and 1-ehlgh Valley came somewhere near paying their Iti-ed charges. A. more monstrous conspiracy ngatnat humanity—nay, civilization—a noro cold-blooded crushing 'down of lelpless men, women and children Is yet to be recorded In the later history of the Unltod States. " . • In 1871 thero-was an attempt'Wado at :Iarrlsburg to amend the existing filtua- lon. In the new State Constitution was an article which foi'bade. carriers from nlnlng coal .or regulating the traffic in the'-fiiel. The frlertcls of the monopolies rallied, and the constitutional provision was fixed so as to allow that which Imd previously been'obtained by |oBflala- Llun to stand;' Tills cost Readlntf alid the others' a largo sum "of'money, .spent lo corrupt JoBlslators. The children of tho Heading nnd the J.ohigh Vallay creation, tho Conl and Iron Company and the Lehlgli Alining Company, whloh controllod tho business, were enabled to continue at the same old stands. Tho iii'fc-umont of Oowon, Packer and tliBlr Ilk wan thut capital and oonibr- at.u Interests must be protected. Tho suf- fe-rlngH, 'he squalid poverty, the do- l>ravltv and the general crushed edndl- tloh of thousands and tens of thousands of. human . beings hud no consideration whatever In tho oyos of these "protectors of capital." In attempting to meet the large fixed charges necessitated by Us Immense Indebtedness, Heading ha; failed several times. All that could Ix ground out of tho miners was taken coal was put up In price and every ad- vantago that'almost'an ontlro monopoly would give was resorted to by tho Read- Ing magnates. THE FETTERS . TIGHTENED. Tho laiit great combination whloh, despite the recent adversities of Reading still continues, so far as the control o tlio coal market Is concerned, places the -fetters tighter upon miners and ths cottl-consumlntr public. With tho louse of the Lohlgh Valley Railway and tho Jersey Central road, tho Heading cor poratlon secured for an Indefinite perloi the control of the coal roads and al tholr rlK'htB to coal lands and mines Had, tho combination been malnluinec It would have given the legal control o HO per cent.,of the anthracite coal trafHi to the "Reading ofilclals. They could shape tralno, fix prices and regulate miners' wages. . - Tb.0 disruption of the combination by the sentiment 1 of Jersey Central am lately of Lehlgh Valley has not changef the methods. Ofilolala of Reading con trol the Jersey'Central, and. tl\e. Lehlgh Vallay, jhrousrh opnnlyahaa;on v ;.tni) par „ _ the,'Read 1ng regources, •• 1-Jo cliajngo In this systa r i-mi. carefully reviewed by the best constitutional lawyers In Congress, find every possible feature that could at all be questioned was stricken out bofqra the passage. There is not a shadow of doubt In my mind about the constitutionality of 'the net." ItDiidlng baa been w.rockod by bad jlij.'UK'Icring. It.Is now. striving to maUn tlio. ge.ricral public jild In Huiiplylrig the, 'oiioTinOiui sums ,of,.'.mone.y itccesmry to )d/> over the fixed annual clinrgea. -Tbe in'porutlim Is like tjiu spendthrift who im ejitanglcrl his means beyond oxtrica-* [on and who goes out on the highway n<i PX torts money by force unOcr tho lea that Ills necessities demand It. of, tho Reading Presldont am calvor, Is mtllunir a portion of 1ng resources, •• No ehaiigo In t of- soiling, COB,!., and',o{ regulating th product' has been effected. . ' m. je qomplete flnanqlal d'r~'— ing ( musf maintain tin ooftli" Iiif *6tJiQi^ wdrdSi th rooUJewly/ranMn' fl&bt to j ,tho..amount,o " W.000;lnd more, and_-]• _ obliged,->t WOB8 OP A BANKER'S SON. rncst Thompson, of New Haven, Married in Hasto nt Denver. (Spoclal to Thi World.) SKDAIJA, Mo., Oct. 12.—The InHtdc jRtory of a battle of two cities, Denver, JOlo., and Now Haven, Conn., wan un- olded to-day In thin city. Ernest 'hompaon, a man twonty-ono yearn of lie, mm'e than n year ago obtained' a vHponsifole poaitlon in a Denver bank lirqutfh thc x influence of Ills father, Clarence 33. Thompson, a New Haven m nicer Younft: ThompKon foil In with a gay ut in Denver. Uiat February and rnudc h« , acuuaintanco ul' Margaret Arrrt- ;trons. whose clilldUood had been spent nt PluaKanlville, i'a. Miss ArmKtrorif; hundsornu blonde and well edu •ated. Bho was a half doxen years Thompson'H senior and the young man luielcly fell tuiif'M' her WlloH. Bho represented to him that BUR was a miluon- Ire and a 'member of an old und prom- jient PoniUiylvanla family, brief courtHhip, ThompHon Alou hud jf day tr>. your*ill I hiij'il the It ini; lie not 1 his ff | >f After nnd MlBH , ArinHtronu 1 wcru quietly married. Thulr lioncymuon WUH brief, . lusting a Hhort two months. In that lime Hhe secured, ho Hays, many valuable diamonds and a' large roll from him, nnd then /|C'J wllh ,a (tanibluiv Young rhomp.ioii, 'durjjiK the honeymoon, \te- eumo nxvnr'a that hln 'wife was a morphine llend, -and, ho now declares, that utter her IllKht her leurned that Hho wi+s an adventuress. with a number of aliases. The eon , vulurnod to Now Haven,. -..••.' .. • fiU'PS; were. at 'Onco taken .to HQeuro a llvorcrj; The woman wns traced -to Be- Itillu. Here she panned as the wife, of 13. 13. McCllntocU, a ; supply UKOllt and operator for the Missouri PiielUc. The mlr were traced from hero to I^umontc, mil from there to Whiting. Kup,, where they , were found by an olilccr, MeClln- tocic wns tlirciitaneA with punishment for complicity In dulvnudlng Thompson ot! money nnd jewelry, but he made a sworn eonfeoHlon of hIM relations wllli ihn woman: other- doponttlona were UiUen to-day nnd the evidence thus ob- tahiod will Hccnre for IQ'rnegt Thompson a divorce from his wife and bring relief to an old family. and respoctcd Connecticut ELOPEMENT, DB8BRTION, DIVOROE. Htittio F. Britto Frood From a Husband Who TftTns FuJse. • In thn Itiehnjoiul County Court nf Oyor and Terininur, at Ili()!nnnn<l,> S. 1., Jttatluo. CiHlon ycsturiluy- Ki'aiitod/iidcci'uo of dlvoroo to [Iat> tlo K llrltto, of Hluinford, Couiu, . from Uor littstmuil, Andrew Jlrltto, who MVOH on tho Covo Hoiiri, Nu\y llrlghton, llrltto clppcd with. hU wife nboul «lt;liteon yean nun. About, eight yu»rs IIKO Britto loft hla wlfo und ulglit uhlldrtiii, A faw inonths slnco ho WU.H truoud to Ktntcn Itiluiid nnd thcro found 1'lvlng with u woman named KnimaJ. Norton, also known us Kmma J. Wnturlmry, llio couple living an mini und'tfuc under tha nunio of llrltton. llrltto brought a counter suit, which was dUmlitscd (or lank of ovlilciwu. ....', •§!» . To Sing Sing for Five Year), Thomas McUlvalno, chiirgcd with having .In liut A'yirll burgliu'Uod tha Btaploton rost-Olllce, nnd also ludlctod for onsanlt In tho llrst degreo In llrlut: three Bhots ut Pollcomun Joseph King, who ntUimptod to 'arront him, nlended BHtlty ypatci'uay morning In tho Richmond Count) Court ot Qycr and Tcrmlnor, .befnro Judge Cullon. JIo wan vcutonctul tn Ityo yi'ara 1 Itli- prlBotiroonUit'Slng 8||)K iH'Uoi". ' • Adjusts thq'Allot Yaoht Oollitlon.' Capt. Wllllaju, Cui'II», of John Jaoob 'Astor's BtoaJJt yfwiM'-^iiri^br 1 ' "•"''"""' " " """° Ico, ol tHMocrybojU. •• •••-•-••- -' |W jnuM'otem. renorltipl tjj» BfV^Vcdneid&W TMaW . m poiUiiipii wni due ta » »«• feplfll-"- 1 " o[ It , ,

Clipped from
  1. The World,
  2. 13 Oct 1893, Fri,
  3. Page 7

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  • Coal - 13. October 1893

    hellemus – 24 Mar 2013

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