White faces among the black ones - why?
Friday, April 24, 1964 THE DAILY TAR HERE Page 5 White The Black ace maoim A Ones W (Editor's note: The following article, written by Jim Clotfelter, a junior in the UNC School of Journalism, first appeared in the Durham Morning Herald on March 26. 1964. Clotfelter was recently awarded eighth place in the William William Randolph Hearst Foundation Cailege Journalism Contest for this story. It is reprinted here as an answer to a question many people ssk oa this campus: "Why do white people participate in civil rigths demonstrations?") By JIM CLOTFELTER CHAPEL HILL What most puzzles many white Americans about the civil rights struggle are the white faces among the black ones in street demonstrations, sit-ins sit-ins sit-ins and jails. In racial demonstrations here in recent months white professors, professors, students and townspeople have risked substantial jail sentences, sentences, in some cases risked their careers, dropped out of school, and quit jobs to work with "the movement." Why? A Duke University religion professor, professor, with a wife and three children, last week was sentenced to 90 days on the road for taking part in a sit-in sit-in sit-in demonstration at Watts Restaurant outside Cbapel Hill. A University of North Carolina Carolina psychology professor, with a wife and daughter, was given a similar sentence. Two white men one a former Morehead Scholar at UNC, the other a great-grandson great-grandson great-grandson of a Confederate Confederate general who organized an Alabama Ku Klux Klan unit are taking part this week in a protest fast in front of the Chapel Chapel Hill post office. In separate interviews recently recently these four white men discussed discussed why they are involved in the movement for Negro civil rights. Dr. Robert T. Osborn, 37, an associate professor of religion at Duke and an ordained Methodist Methodist minister, lives in a wooded suburban area of Durham, with his Louisiana-born Louisiana-born Louisiana-born wife, Dorothy, and their three boys, aged 6, 8, and 10. Dr. Osborn, who has taught at Duke for more than nine years, faces a three-month three-month three-month term on the state roads. He talked about what he call Jiiltiil Wfo '-rn'n' '-rn'n' '-rn'n' John Famed Film Man , - Here Next Week Famed Hollywood film producer, producer, Sam Goldwyn, Jr. will be a guest of the Department of Radio, Television and Motion Pictures here on April 27, 28 and 29. Dr. Wesley H. Wallace, Chairman of the Department has revealed plans for a series of lectures and meetings with the visiting producer. producer. Accompanying Goldwyn will be Professor George Garrett, a member member of the English Department faculty at the University of Virginia. Virginia. The three day program will be built around a new film, "The Young Lovers," which was produced by Goldwyn and written by Prof. Garrett. From 8:00 to 9:00 on the evening of April 27th, Goldwyn and Garrett will appear on the WUNC-TV WUNC-TV WUNC-TV feature, "Encounter," "Encounter," which is moderated by Dr. John S. Clayton. From 9:30 to 11:00 P.M., a special class will be held dealing with Critical Analysis Analysis of Radio, Television and Motion Pictures. Goldwyn will conduct this session which will be held in Classroom No. 1 of the new Swain Hall Annex. Between 10 and 12 Noon, on Tuesday, April 28, a special showing showing of "The Young Lovers" will be held in the Carolina Theatre in Chapel Hill. (All interested students may attend by obtaining obtaining from the office ed the Christian obligation to action. action. "If the Christian is to be concerned concerned about anybody in the South, it must be the Negro. His needs are so manifest and urgent," urgent," the professor said. "The only alternative is not to be concerned concerned at all." By his dual position as teacher teacher and minister, Dr. Osborn said he has been forced into stating publicly where he stands on civil rights. "Because I have been called upon to speak about the responsibility of Christians for the achievement of justice, I have been asked many times to 'put my foot where my mouth is.' " Dr. Osborn said he has found the Christian church in the South usually unable "to change the moral climate" and universities "generally ineffective in influencing influencing the basic beliefs of students," because "a preacher or a teacher teacher is paid to talk," and often that is all they do. "They can always be written off by society as being in an ivory tower, with no contact with the real world," Dr. Osborn said. Years of experience with the role of "talker," Dr. Osborn said, "have confirmed for me a basic theological insight: The word is never effective until it becomes flesh . . . becomes action." When asked to participate in a direct action protest. Dr. Osborn Osborn said he decided that it "is not enough for the Christian to say there must be justice. An act of some sort is necessary to give some substance to your word. "If I didn't act, I would have had to shut my mouth about things I'd been talking about," he said, because students would have thought that "in the last analysis I was not willing to act on what I believed." Also, he said, "I wanted to show that I as a minister mean it when I say that integration is the will of God." He said many Protestant churches in the South have become "irrelevent" to current current problems because they "have given moral support to segregation." segregation." : ; His participation in the protest entailed some risk, Dr. Osborn said, "but it was a risk every Christian is called upon to take ..... We who cal lourselves Christians should not be afraid M - iilil rnmm mm lilii US v f Hi- Hi- -i-r -i-r -i-r - - rflr'n'flilttn'anrt-iri rflr'n'flilttn'anrt-iri rflr'n'flilttn'anrt-iri Dunne Photo by Jim Wallace of the' Department of Radio, Television Television and Motion Pictures in new Swain Hall. Admission will be absolutely limited to the holders holders of these passes.) From 3:00 to 5:00 on the afternoon afternoon of the 28th, Goldwyn and Garrett will conduct a second discussion discussion as a followup to the showing showing of "The Young Lovers." This will again be held in Classroom No. 1, and all interested students are invited to attend. Between 10 and 12 Noon on the morning of Wednesday, April 29, Garrett and Goldwyn will hold an informal discussion session with students from the writing classes of the Department of Radio, Television Television and Motion Pictures in Room 102 of new Swain Hall. Any writing students from other classes classes may attend this session by contacting Professor William Hardy of RTVMP. At Noon on the 29th, the two visitors will hold a seminar on Problems of Motion Picture Production Production in a room to be designated designated in new Swain Hall. Dr. Wallace Wallace stressed the unique opportunity opportunity afforded students interested in the art of film by the visit of Goldwyn and Garrett. Further information concerning the program program of activities can be obtained obtained by calling the office of the RTVMP Department. r r fx I ' - - I .-. .-. .-. -X -X . -S& -S& . 1 ,S" ' ' ' " - ' J . ; ' - : 1 (V -: -: -. -. . M , - i - - ...... -- -- m ,i i Pat to bear" at least a small 'cross for doing what we should do." The professor said he would not call on all Christians to participate participate in demonstrations. "I would not generalize on my act. "I had a certain impunity by virtue of my profession. I don't depend on my community directly directly for my support .... And because because of my impunity I felt more responsibility to act." The words came harder from 21-year-old 21-year-old 21-year-old 21-year-old 21-year-old John Dunne, chairman chairman of the Chapel Hill Freedom Committee: "A person cannot be intellectually honest unless he takes actions in accord with his beliefs." Dunne is a mystery to some whites who reason that other whites go into the movement because because they are unsuccessful in their own society and are seeking seeking "a meaning for life" in another another society. Dunne is a graduate of Choate prep school in Connecticut, where he was the School Seal Award winner for leadership, was voted the outstanding musician in his class (violin), and was a star fullback on the football team. . He entered UNC in the fall of 1961 with one of John Motely Morehead's prized scholarships, became a pledge in the Pi Kappa Kappa Alpha social fraternity, and was active in student politics and the YMCA. In the fall of 1963 (when he was a senior, a year ahead of his class), Dunne dropped out of school to work with the Freedom Freedom Committee. Since then he has led mass demonstrations which resulted in more than 600 arrests of more than 200 people. Dunne, whose face shows studied intensity and almost accusing accusing eyes, linked his basic yiews on race back to his family. "I was brought up in a family which stressed Christian brotherhood, brotherhood, that emphasized that you treat everyone equally, that you don't pick on the underdog. .... "The thing that was stressed more at home than anything else was complete honesty. If one believes something," he should act according to it." Dunne said his family has stood behind him through his arrests and are willing willing to help "whenever they are needed." He spoke of the moral dilemma he saw in trying to make decisions decisions on the racial issue, as being being similar to a man-drowning: man-drowning: man-drowning: "If a man is drowning and you have a chance of saving him and you don't, then you may not be found guilty in court, but you are morally guilty of killing hjm." ish" reasons why he felt obligated ish" reasons wh he felt obligated to work for the breaking down of racial barriers. "I had the feeling that I was not free; that I could not face a Negro without him seeing white instead of seeing seeing me, John Dunne. "Why should I back down on my ideals, deny myself love and deny myself friendship on account account of my race?" Dunne said he was "concerned about my future children. I hope that my work in some small way will save us from having to live out the rest of our lives suffering from segregation. . . . "I want to live in the South. I love the South. This is where my friends are, both white and black." Ohio native Dunne, some say, is a Yankee come South to deal with things about which he knows nothing. But Pat Cusick is a different story, Cusick looks like the proverbial proverbial "Alabama red-neck.'' red-neck.'' red-neck.'' A hefty, hefty, red-complexion red-complexion red-complexion ed man, often dressed in overalls or baggy blue jeans, Cusick could be mistaken for a farmer or a chicken feed salesman. He was born and raised in Gadsden, Ala. His great-grandfather great-grandfather great-grandfather great-grandfather is reputed to have found- found- Cusich Photo by Jim Wallace ed the Ku Klux Klan in Etowah County, Ala., after the . close of the Civil War. Cusick, 32, was in the Air Force for two-and-a-half two-and-a-half two-and-a-half two-and-a-half two-and-a-half two-and-a-half two-and-a-half years during the Korean conflict, when he served as air traffic control supervisor at Templehof Air Force Base, West Germany. Later he worked for three years with the Computation Center Center in Chapel Hill and lacked one course to receive a B.S. in mathematics, mathematics, when he quit both job and immediate prospects for a degree last summer, to work with the Student Peace Union and the Freedom Committee. Cusick said he was a segregationist segregationist as a teen-ager. teen-ager. teen-ager. "I went to a Catholic boarding school in Alabama which taught that segregation was morally wrong. But I led arguments against the faculty in trying to prove it was morally right." For about two years before he became active in the civil rights movement, Cusick said he worried worried about whether to become hv volved. "So this exists, I thought, but I have my own life to lead. ... "I was just seeing the wrong done the Negro. I didn't really at that time see that it affected me, that it also restricted my freedom. ... "But a person has to do more than sign petitions and talk . . . unless his beliefs are a hollow thing. If I'm going to be moral, then I can't do otherwise. . . . "It would be just as wrong for me not to try in my own way to do something about this as it is for people like Bull Connor Connor blatantly to oppress people, and maybe it would be more wrong." Cusick, author of the Freedom Committee's unique "non-violent "non-violent "non-violent plege," taken by all people before before participating in mass dem TONIGHT AT 10;00 P.M. Duke Indoor Stadium II 1 I f r-f r-f r-f A 1 11 II 111 I with Gloria General Admission $2.50 or in Duke onstrations, believes in "using all one's resources . . . to resist this evil until it is eliminated." Cusick, who fasted for two weeks during a 30-day 30-day 30-day jail sentence sentence in December because he was placed in a segregated prison prison camp, said, "I as a person cannot cooperate with segregation segregation in anv way, whether it be in Chapel Hill or in a white pris-. pris-. pris-. on camp. . . "Segregation is morally evil. If a person cooperates with evil, it is an immoral act." Both Dunne and Cusick talked about their transitions from "over-coffee "over-coffee "over-coffee liberals," who talked talked about equal rights, to. the role of activists, who tried to do something about it. That transition transition also was made by William H. Wynn, the other faculty member member sentenced to three months on the roads for participating in the Watts Restaurant sit-in. sit-in. sit-in. A. native of Texas, Wynn, 35, is an assistant professor of psychology psychology at UNC and is finishing up work on his" Ph.D. A slightly-built slightly-built slightly-built man, wearing dark-rimmed dark-rimmed dark-rimmed glasses, he has been at the University University since September. He is married and has a one-year-old one-year-old one-year-old one-year-old one-year-old . daughter. He said his views on race stem from his "fundamentalist religious religious background the Church of Christ in Texas, where we took religion and life pretty seriously," seriously," and from his experiences as a social scientist, seeing the effects effects of discrimination. The Church of Christ, he said, taught that men "should do what we can to establish justice on earth .... The individual is called on to question and to search for justice." The church taught that all secular secular authority is suspect, Wynn said. "Secular authority, as the church teaches, is not on a par with the Bible as a source of authority." Wynn said his religious ideas have been modified considerably since his youth in Texas, but conceded conceded that he still was influenced influenced by church "identification with the weak, the underdog, the poor . . . and the view that the power power of the higlr and the mighty, who on earth are running things, might be prone to wickedness." When the opportunity came to participate in a Chapel Hill-sit-lin Hill-sit-lin Hill-sit-lin Hill-sit-lin Hill-sit-lin with six other professors, Wynn aid, "I felt called upon to do something .... "We (the professors) thought E-'e E-'e E-'e might make it clear that such ction could be ihe action of - re--sponsibile re--sponsibile re--sponsibile re--sponsibile people .... clearly not youthful and getting our kicks out of an exciting demonstration . . .. . We were not irresponsible beatniks, as the students had been misrepresented as . . ." The sit-in, sit-in, sit-in, Wynn said, "is a means that can be used to call attention to the problem, a form of political pressure. It appeared to. us j&e pnjy. means Jeft that might be effective .... to spur action by the city fathers.' "The action was taken in full awareness of the consequences," Wynn said, referring to Solicitor Thomas D. Cooper's claim in court that the professors were "used" by civil rights forces. "We knew what we were doing," Wynn said. Under other circumstances he might have acted differently, the a de Haven Tickets on Sale at Door Main Quad. professor said. "If I had known more people in Chapel Hill I could have exerted influence of the more usual political type, talking with people. But since I was new in Chapel Hill, that means was closed to me." Wynn said he was "obligated" to participate in a direct action protest against segregation, "to . be true to my commitments and ideals, to keep my own. self respect, respect, to show that I could do mere than talk about iL" . - -, -, r - : , X : v - & 4 i 1 Culwrr Pictures. Iao. Be sophisticated: drink Schlitz Have the gall to call your Rolls Royce by its last name. Introduce your wigmaker to guests at your next beerbust. Brag about going on safari in evening dress. And all because Schlitz has drawn you out of your shell, given you courage, brought you out where there are people, shown you the light. Schlitz... Real Gusto in a great light beer. Drink. Find yourself. 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' , is ----- ----- ----- 'x V .":V-. .":V-. ' St v ' fc i if I '! CL . Wi.. lnlyi.M T. toi fm mtSmtimmtM. glBlllWWIIBMJL III I M H IIWI I HI, i I I1 1 Mil 1 1 II II WH B II III Ml I I I II II 111 ll TirfTFIimTIMI ll" II Tir- Tir- II- II- "fl l n"ll T T1 irT f I Chevelle. Lots of room inside yet nicely sized for easy handling. Now thrifty Chevy II has hill-flattening hill-flattening hill-flattening power. Unique Corvair offers extra power that accents its road-hugging road-hugging road-hugging rear engine traction. And the exciting Corvette speaks for itself. Yes, right now is new car time. T-N-T T-N-T T-N-T T-N-T T-N-T Time. Tune to get the most fun from a new car. To get a great trade on your old one. To get a t f - A t ' 1 A. J t f 1 . Wynn like Dr. Osborn told Superior Court Judge Raymond Mallard, before they were sentenced sentenced for trespass violations, that they would, "under certain circumstances." circumstances." again violate the trespass statute. Dunne, Cusick and other whites closely involved in the local movement similarly have indicated indicated no lessening in their consuming consuming zeal, no retreat from what they see as a moral commitment. The white faces remain. fSjM iO. I